JOURNAL OF JAMES MADISON PENDLETON
Original in Kentucky Library - W.K.T.C. [Western Kentucky Teachers College / now Western Kentucky University] - Bowling Green, Kentucky - Copied in 1945
Incidents of Travel
April 11, 1844. Calling my family together at 4 o'clock p.m. and reading the 46th Psalm we united in prayer commending ourselves during our contemplated separation to the care of our Heavenly Father. Then taking leave of my beloved wife kissing our sweet children and giving a word of religious advice to the servants I took passage in the stage for Louisvelle [sic] on my way to Philadelphia to attend the Triennial Convention for Foreign Missions.
12th. Having slept but little during last night I am rather drowsy today but capable not withstanding of thinking with deep interest of my family and the church at Bowling Green. Indeed I may say the church is now dearer to me than even before owing to a manifestation of Christian regard which I was permitted to enjoy the evening before I left home. My wife having suggested the propriety of having a prayer meeting at our house before my departure (how many wise suggestions does she make) several members of the church were notified of our desire and were present at the appointed hour. The six deacons were there one of whom conducted the services and the five engaged in prayer. So fraternal were their allusions to me so eloquently did their voices falter when they mentioned mv departure so spontaneously did they weep so fervently did they pray that I might return to their (blank) in the fulness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ that the whold [sic] scene has made on [an] indelible impression on my mind. Never before did I know how much my brethren loved me. Happy should be the Pastor who has str such De[a]cons to cooperate with him[.] Truly God is good to me.
Reached Louisville at half past ten o'clock p.m. and took lodgings at the Exchange hotel.
13. Called to see bro. Malcom and a few other friends spent a short time with them and took passage on the Steamer Pike at 11 o'clock for Warsaw Gallatin Co. Ky. Found a copy of the Debate between Campbell & Rice on the Boat and read over a hundred pages on their first proposition. Nothing new. The amount of what Mr. Rice says is that wash fs one of the meanings of baptize and the art of washing can be performed in different ways. He ought to know that when baptize means wash the washing is a consequence of the immersion Baptize limits to our method of washing. But no more at present in reference to the Debate.
Arrived at Warsaw at 8. p.m. met at the wharf by Mr. Hawkins his sister Mildred and others. How delightful to meet with friend in the midst of strangers.
14. The morning light has dawned. This is the day of the Lord. Jesus rose from the dead the first day of the week. How animating the reminiscences of his resurrection. Let us go to the house of the Lord.
Preached with some liberty on the value of “the sacrifice of Christ” at 11 o'clock and on "the Christian's hope” at 4.
Enjoying the hospitalities of Mrs. Hawkins and Dr. Cale till 8. I stepped on the steamer Ben Franklin wishing to proceed
as rapidly as possible on my journey. What a delightful privilege it is when on a steamer to have a stateroom into which to enter whenever disposed so to do and pour out the soul in prayer to God. I trust I have tonight enjoyed communion with my Heavenly Father at the mercy seat. I have not for some months realized such composure of mind. With what affectionate solicitude do I remember my wife and our dear offspring when I bow my knees before the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
15. Waked up this morning at Cincinnati. A number of Boats lying at the wharf hundreds of persons receiving freight drays settling whips cracking and men walking as if their lives depended on their going at the rate of ten miles an hour. Truly the Cincinnatians are diligent in business. O there they were fervent in spirit serving the Lord. Went early in the morning on the Clipper and took passage for Pittsburg. To my unspeakable gratification I met with Dr. Lynd making his arrangements to go East. After Breakfast sauntering through the city I fell in with Bro. Hail of Franklin and enjoyed a most pleasant interview with him. At 11 o'clock p.m. the Clipper was off. Standing on deck we looked at the Queen of the West till she faded away in the distance. We have a respectable number of Baptists on Board Brethern [sic] Sherwood President of Aton, Lynd, Cresay, & Brisbane of Cincinnati and Robert of Lebanon. God grant that my association with these Brethern [sic] may be conducive to my spiritual improvement. Passed Maysville about sun set. A much smaller place than I expected to see Ohio. No accident has yet occured. The passengers appear to be in good spirits.
Passed by Wheeling the place at which most of our Western Merchants leave the river on their way East. It is not so large a place as I expected to see. Felt some interest in looking on the soil of Virginia. How many themes of interesting thought does the Old Dominion suggest. Here my parents first saw the light here they lived till the prospect of providing better for their children allured them to the more fertile soil of Kentucky. In one of the streams of this venerable state were they baptized in the name of the Lord. Here was I born and if I have been born again in the state that adopt ed me all is well. Passed Fellsburg 16 miles above Wheeling near Bethany College. The direction to the College was pointed out. I thought with sone interest of the extraordinary man at the head of the Institution. What an influence has he exerted in many parts of this nation. O the majesty of a mighty intellecy!
18. Went to bed last night expecting to wake in Pittsburg. But this morning has come and our Clipper clips no longer being on a sand bar. However the crew are trying to get her off
. . . . . .
She is off the channel again now we go
. . . . . .
Reached Pittsburg 9 o'clock a. m. Dr. Lynd's brother having engaged the stage for him his daughter and bro. Cresay they leave bro Sherwood and Robert and myself to take the canal
Boat tonight at 9 o' clock. Concluding to learn as much as possible we have visited the glass works, the coal mines, and the iron works. It is really wonderful to see with what perfect ease they put the liquid glass into what ever shape they please. We saw them making tumblers, bottles, bowls etc. A tumbler is made as soon as a person would drink a glass of milk. We went into a coal mine 500 yards stooping all the way. There is a rail road on a small scale. The coal is hauled out in small cars drawn by mules. Bro. Sherwood gave some good advice to the miners expressing a desire to meet them in that world in which there is no darkness but unclouded light. In one of the mines it is said that 300 dogs are employed in hauling the coal. The iron works interested us much. They beat and roll vast masses of iron into any form they please. Pittsburg seems to be a business place far in adv[a]nce of Louisville but behind Cincinnati. But the coal dust O the dust! The roof of every house looks as black as soot the water conducted along the sides of the streets is black. What is then that is not black? The city is well supplied with gas lights, This arrangement I admire very much for the lights are not dark.
19. Taking the canal Boat last night we are to-day making our way though rather slowly to the city of brotherly love. Our Boat is drawn by three horses and we go 4 miles an hour. We have passes through about thirty locks and one tunnel. The tunnel is somewhat of a curiosity. It is 900 ft. long. Midway it is as dark as night. It is arched over very substantially with stone. How great the ingenuity of man. The scenery of the canal is moderately good. I cannot apply the epithet splendid to it. There are some beautiful elevations abounding in trees and the mountain laurel. I am unfavorably impressed with Pennsylvania character. I think there is very little intelligence among the people generally. I refer more especially to those we see on the canal. They are a penunious [penurious] set. Money money they will make if possible and many of the rich farmers live in houses that are not too good for stables. They are willing to live any way to make money I believe I have known men in Kentucky who rendered themselves contemptible by their penuriousness. Does it not indicate a very contracted intellect to idolize gold and silver? O that this idoletry [sic] was confined to the world if indeed it must exist at all - but the church is cursed with members almost as covetous as Judas.
20. On waking this morning found myself at the foot of the Alleghany mountain. The railroad car was in readiness. We took our seats and up and up we went. By means of fine inclined planes we ascended to the summit and the same number of planes took us down to the level again. The scenery on the mountain is in some respects truly splendid and majestic. Tall cliffs raise their heads magnificently while the straight pine points to the heavens. I enjoyed the descent from the mountain exceedingly. A strange exhilaration of spirit seized me and I thought of Longinus' definition of the sublime. The works of nature are the works of God - and when contemplated with a proper spirit
are instrumental in exalting our conceptions of the Almighty Architect of the Universe. But here are the works of art attempting to overcome the operations of nature - and happily for the weary traveller is quite successful. How great the Ingenuity of man! How immeasurably is intellect elevated above instinct. What a broad foundation for moral accountability is laid in the possession of rational powers.
Descending from the mountain we at Holidaysburg took the canal again. What patience is required to travel on a canal boat after riding in a railroad car.
21. This is the Lord's day. Brethren Sherwood & Robert have stopped at Lewiston to spend the day leaving me to preach on the boat. I have preached being listened to with attention by a majority of the passengers - some however read newspapers in the meantime. May the seed sown germinate and bring forth fruit to the glory of God.
22. Waked up this morning at Harrisburg the Capital of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg is a handsome place. The state house is a fine building - but a number of the Legislators who at present have seats in it are very ignorant and at the same time quite prone to disputation. Many of the Legislatures are a disgrace to the States.
We took our seats in the car at 7 o'clock A.M. and left Harrisburg. The country is in many places in a high state of improvement. We passed through Lancaster a most beautiful place said to be the largest inland town in the United States. Tarrying a moment onward we moved occasionally going with such rapidity that I found it impracticable to count the pannels [sic] of fence on the road side. On we went approaching the city of brotherly love passing the Garard College on the Sch[u]ylkill river & entering into the city the hackmen and the cabmen drove on each side of the car inviting us to ride with then when we stopped. Agents from Hotels thrust themselves unto the car holding their cards before our eyes and recommending with much earnestness the houses they represented. Laying all dignity aside they evinced a most pestinacious determination to make our visit to the city the means of putting something into their pockets. What will not the love of money do? And when I stepped out of the car it was almost impossible to make my way through the crowd of boys who insisted very importunately on carrying my carpet bag for me.
At last I extricated myself from them and made my way to the Depository of the Baptist Publication Society. Here I met with a number of brethren from different sections of the country among them were several acquaintances viz Bennet[,] Peck[,] Fletcher[,] Burrows & These friends seemed so glad to see me that I at once felt at home. Brother Burrows kindly invited me to partake of the hospitalities of his house during my stay in the city which invitation I gladly accepted. Brother B. appears just as he did during his residence in Kentucky very cheerful and at times witty and facetious.
Tonight we have been to hear Dr. Welch of Albany preach
before the Bible Society. He discoursed on these words: It is good always to be zealously affected in a good thing. The sermon was good but it fell below my expectation. I had anticipated a wonderful display of eloquence. It is often the case that Doctors of Divinity are greater at a distance than when we approach them. Distance frequently lends enchantment to the view. There is one excellency in Dr. W’s preaching which I hope not to forget. His illustrations are drawn from Scripture. It is remarkable with what ease he can refer to different portions of the Divine word to elucidate the topics he discusses. Dr. W is I suppose about 45 years of age. His eyes are a dark hazel - his face rather round and his head a little gray.
23. The Bible Society met this morning Dr. Cone presided. He is one of the few men who fill the President's Chair with dignity. He made an address on the Bible cause. He is a graceful speaker and presents his thoughts with much energy. He certainly has the spirit of the gospel in a high degree. He is becoming old. His hair is almost entirely white - his person spare - and his eyes pale blue. He is perhaps as powerful a man before a popular audience as can easily be found. May his life be long preserved.
24. Attended the meeting of the Triennial Convention Dr. Johnson of S.C. presided. Four hundred and fifty delegates present - more than ever attended the Convention before. Nothing of special importance done after organization. I was introduced by my friends to some of the great men among whom were Drs. Wayland & Williams. Dr. Wayland is I believe unlike any man I have seen. He is quite large perhaps weighs 250 lbs. - has dark eyes - black whiskers - and hair slightly gray. His forehead is very prominent - projects greatly over his eyes, which makes them appear to be deeply set in his head. His [He] is awkward and seems not to care if he is. When asked about his health he said he was as “stiff as a cow.” Who would have expected such an expression from such a man! Dr. Williams is of size. He has a fine head if phrenology be true. He has the appearance of a student. He is cadaverous in complexion - and frequently seems immersed in thought. He is called by some a walking library. Having been lame from his birth he could not when at school play with his companions and therefore while they were engaged in sport he would be reading some book. This in all probability the foundation of his knowIedge was laid. He is the most diffident man I have seen. He seems to have no confidence in himself. He is one of the great men of the denomination.
25 The Convention still in session. Dr. Wayland was chosen President. J.B. Taylor & R.H. Neale secretaries.
Brethren Kincaid Missionary from Burmah and Fuller from S.C. made interesting addresses. Kincaid is an impressive speaker. There is no special brilliancy in him - but his descriptive powers are very good. Many of his accounts of Missionary effort were very affecting. I think at one time there must have been from 500 to a 1000 persons in tears. It is interesting to see and hear a man who has been for years
laboring among the heathen.
Bro. Fuller is one of the best looking men in the Convention. He is tall and commanding in his person graceful in his manner and impressive in his elocution. Nature has done much for him - and in addition th [to] this he has a thorough education.
April 26 The subject of slavery has been introduced into the Home Mission Society. The Abolitionists wish to have the Board instructed to employ no ministers as Missionaries who are slaveholders. Much has been said on both sides of the question. Some of the speeches have been of an inflammatory character. Fuller of the South is abler in the vindication of the slaveholding brethren than any man in the body. He remarked impressively that there must be a new Bible before it could be proved that slavery is a sin - for where there is no law there is no transgression. He deplored slavery as a calamity but could not feel culpable because he was born in the South and had become possessed of servants by inheritance. He is one of the most dignified and calm debaters I have ever seen. Mr. Colver of Boston is the leader of the abolitionists. He is a man of some talent but is exceedingly rough and uncourteous. He used a number of ad captandum arguments but did not meet the question with fairness and magnanimity. Dr. Welch said that he considered it expedient for slaveholders to be employed as Missionaries. Bre. Jeter of Va. made some forcible remarks in defence of the South. He expatiated on two facts: that the Hebrews were permitted to own slaves and that slavery existed among the Romans when Christ and the Apostles were on earth Paul he argued enforced the reciprocal duties of Master and servant - thus recognizing the obligation of servants. Whatever may be said of slavery elsewhere it is man[i]fest that a discussion of the question in the Horm [Home] Mission Society is out of order. There can be no constitutional action on the subject. Everything said and done in reference to it by the Society is clearly extra-constitutional. But many men in these days are unwilling to be governed by rules which they themselves have adopted. If as has been said consistency be a jewel it is surely becoming very valuable as all commodities increase in value in the ratio of their scarcity. But enough --
27 The Publication Society met at the call of the P[r]esident Dr. Babcock. Many interesting remarks were made in reference to the necessity of disseminating religious intellegence [sic] by means of the Society's Books and Tracts. Many affecting and almost incredtb1e statements were made with regard to the scantiness of many Western Ministers' libraries. I have long believed that there are many preachers in the West who buck through as numerous difficulties and make as painful sacrifices in the service of God as any men who can be found in any part of our country.
Seven hundred dollars in Books and money have been to-day subscribed for the benefit of such men. May the amount be augmented.
April 28. This is the day of the Lord. No exciting
business of the convention will occupy our minds to-day. We will be under no necessity of listening to the incoherent sayings of abolitionists. Arrangements have been made for a great number of pulpits to be filled by Baptist Ministers delegates to the Convention.
Evening 9 o'clock. This morning I listened with great interest to a sermon from bro. Fuller from the parable of the prodigal Son. He made two points – 1 The sinner's estrangement from God. 2 his return to God. He is an exceedingly impressive speaker. I noticed several times that he so enclaimed the attention of his auditors that there was almost the stillness of death in the assemble - tears flowing from a hundred eyes - and all ears open to catch the heavenly accents. And when he paused there was an almost universal change of position - and a general coughing - persons forgetting to do such things until the speaker permitted the spell to be broken. O the matchless power of true eloquence! Bro F possesses fine talents and a thorough education but after all his strength lies in his piety out of which grows an inextinguishable zeal. He was once an Episcopalian and gave up all his religious affinities in becoming a Baptist. He is in the habit of kneeling in the pulpit as soon as he enters it offering a silent prayer. Ministers ought to be men of prayer - but let them pray in their closets. Why not? Should they attract the attention of a whole congregation to themselves by kneeling in so conspicuous a place as an open pulpit? This practice of bro. F. I admire less than any thing I have seen in him. But perhaps I carry me opposition to Pharisaic appearances to an unreasonable length.
At 3 1/2 o'clock heard a sermon delivered to the Aanson St. Church by bro W. W. Everts of N. York City. He is a young man of sprightly intellect. His discourse indicated talent in connexion with an enlightened zeal. He is the friend of my friend Rev. T. G. Keen. Having been appointed to preach at the North Church at 7 1/2 and bro. Taylor of Richmond having proposed an exchange with me because of his proximity to North Church I preached in Dr. Parker's Church. Dr. P. was instrumental in establishing Presbyterarian [sic] in New Orleans. He is now Pastor of a large congregation in that city. He has a fine house of worship but I determined that I would go into it and preach just as if I had always been accustomed to such a house. So I sat down on the pulpit sofa cushioned with elegant red silk velvet as comfortably (yes and more so) as I sit on my hard bench in Bowling Green. I preach to an attentive audience. And after the services closed the Elders had the kindness to express a wish to hear me again. The celebrated bro. Barnes was in the congregation occuppying [sic] a front seat. I did not know it till the services closed and I am glad I did not. O that my feeble labors may accomplish some good. This I believe is the first time I have preached to a large assembly in whom there was not one person that I remembered seeing before.
29 The convention and Home Mission Society have both held sessions today. The abolition question has been agitated
again. Abolitionists insist that slaveholders shall be ineligible to appointment as Missionaries of the Home Mission Society. The question will not be disposed of till to-morrow To-night I have heard a number of brethren speak in reference to Foreign Mission among whom was Dr. Williams. He and Mr. Fuller are the only men I have seen in the Convention who have come up to my expectation. Dr. W. did not venture to raise his eyes for sometime after he began to speak. He is a personification of diffidence. Never have I seen such self-depreciation. His remarks were most excellent – his ideas extremely rich - and his language perfect rhetoric. He is thought by many to be better acquainted with theology than any minister in New Yord [sic]. He is indefatigable in his studies and has a library of 7000 volumes over which to pore from day to day.
30. The question has to-day been decided that Ministers living in slave states shall be regarded eligible to appointment as Missionaries. The vote stood 131 to 61.
The Convention has adjourned to meet in. Cincinnati the last Wednesday in Apl 1847. Who will be spared to see that day? How many before that time will go the way of all the earth. How many tongues now eloquent will be still in death. O that all may be ready.
The Convention having adjourned and I having an after-noon to spare bro Burrows very kindly procured a horse and buggy and we went to Laurel Hill Cemetery Girard College. The House of Refuge Fair Mount etc. So beautiful a place as the Cemetery I have never before seen. It is a most enchanting spot. The trees wore their green branches in the winds of heaven - the long grass carpets the ground - the shrubbing is tastefull arranges - every thing is in perfect order. Along how many gravel walks we made our way I know not - for who will while admiring the tombs and monuments think of numbers? The specimens of sculpture are very fine some of one form and some of another - indeed there is great diversity. One monument I noticed with much interest. A fond husband and father had erected it in memory of his deceased wife and seven children. There was on it a very natural representation of an open rose and seven buds. Ah how does that bereaved man feel when thinking of the rose and the buds! A column I saw most elegantly finished and most naturally broken about six feet above the ground – an affecting symbol of the broken hopes of the parents who had there deposited the remains of a beloved child. One tomb I saw (sho [who] sees it will remember it) and long did I gaze on it. The marble out of which it was constructed was beautiful - and on the slab was the exact image of a little boy pale – emaciated - his eyes closed in death - his hair lying in beautiful ringlets on his neck - and his head resting on a pillow. Nothing in the cemetery affected so much as this. I began to think how I should feel on seeing my own dear boy motionless in death. There is an indescribable tenderness in a father's feelings when a 1000 miles from his children
I visited also the monument erected to the memory of Charles Thompson a prominent man in our revolutionary struggle – Secretary to Congress and translator of the Old Testament
from the Greek Septuagint into English. Mr. T. was a native of Ireland. After his arrival in America he received many works of kindness from Dr. Franklin. I cannot describe all I saw in the Cemetery. Leaving the lovely enclosure we made our way to Girard College. This is said to be much the finest building in the United States. It is of marble 4 stories high. The roof projects several feet and rests upon magnificent columns - which cost $14,000 apiece. There are thirty four of them. The roof is covered with marble slabs four feet wide. The distance from the gutter (which is enomously [sic] large) to the comb of the roof according to my measurements is 56 feet. And as the floor is rather flat I suppose the building is not much under a 100 feet wide. But after all is not this edifice a monument of extravagance and folly? It is said that Girard in his will expressed a desire to have a plain and substantial building erected - gave a plan and said “let it be according to this plan or any other that good taste may suggest. The Philadelphians have availed themselves of the latitude given in the phrase “good taste” and have already expended $1,800,000 and the building is not yet completed. However they justify themselves in this extravagant outlay in the following manner. The scy [?] that Girard knew that he would soon be forgotten unless he did something extraordinary and that he wished a most splendid edifice reared out of the most durable material that his name might be handed down to posterity. But even admitting this to be the fact the question arises would not the earthly immortality which he sought be more effectually secured by erecting a building at half the cost and appropriating the remainder of the fund to the endoument [sic] of professorships and other legitimate Collegiate purposes? For as it is much doubt is entertained whether the Institution will ever go into operation owing to the exhaustion of the Girard College Fund. But it does not become me to reason on the subject. Leaving the College we went to the Fair Mount water works. They are beautiful indeed. The water is thrown up by steam power perhaps a 100 feet into large basins excavated on the summit of the Mount. From these basins the whole city is supplied with water. And it would admit of some debate whether the Schuykill which supplies the city with water is not as valuable as the Delaware on which the shipping rides so majestically? But I will not enter into the discussion. I have omitted to say in the proper place that in company with my friend Burrows I visited the Philadelphia Library said to be the largest in the United States. It contains a 149,000 volumes. A man can scarcely think of any book which is not to be found here and he will see multitudes that he never thought of before. I looked at the burdened shelves and alcoves and thought how foolish it is for a person to be reading every book he can procure. He can never read all the books emitted from the press if he lives to be as old as Methuselah. After all if students many of them at least would read less and think more it would be better for them.
May 1st. So my friends think it would be impossible for me to get from Baltimore to Wheeling in less than two weeks
owing to the multitudes that will be returning from the Whig Convention. I have concluded to leave for home this morning by way of Pittsburg.
Bidding adieu to bro and Sister Burrows I took my seat in the Harrisburg car at 7 A.M. and reached Chambersburg at 8 P.M. Then took the stage. As there were 9 passengers inside I was obliged to sit out with the driver. Situated thus I rode two nights and days arriving at Pittsburg the 3rd inst. at 9 o'clock P.M. As to the inconveniences of this ride - the rain descending several hours during the time - as to the ungenerous treatment received from some of the passengers from whom I had reason to expect better things - let them be forgotten. Ah! Can I forget.
May 4th Left Pittsburg on the Steamer Majestic and reached Louisville at 6 o'clock A.M. the 7th. Here spent a part of two days in the families of my friends Halbest and Beth [?].
May 8th 3 o'clock P.M. Having waited impatiently for the Gen. Warren to leave for Bowling Green I can now comfort myself that the steam is rising. Now we are off. I find a number of my friends on board among whom is Judge Ewing. I hope we shall have pleasant conversation on the way.
9. Reached the mouth of Green River early this morning and have passed through two locks to-day. These locks are incomparably better than any on the Pennsylvania Canal. Green River is a very fine stream - though not very straight.
May 10. Arrived safely at home after an absence of 29 days. My family has returned from Glasgow to-day. We reached Bowling Green almost at the same time without concert - a very agreeable coincidence. All well. Most devoutly would I thank God for his preserving goodness during our separation. We have enjoyed uninterrupted health. We meet again in favorable circumstances. No member of the church has died in my absence. Bro. Baker has had the kindness to preach several times for me - a favor which I shall not forget. On a review of my journey I feel glad that I made the trip. It is very gratifying to me that I have become acquainted with many dear brethren of whom I had heard and read for a number of years but whom I had never before seen. I trust my views of men and things have been considerable expanded - and that the information I have acquired will contribute to my usefulness in the cause of God. Here I will day [lay] down my pen after writing down Mr. Addison 's beautiful Hymn entitled the “Traveler's Psalm” which I often repeated on my journey.
How are thy servants blessed O Lord
How sure is their defence!
Eternal wisdom is their guide
Their help Omnipotence
In foreign realms and lands remote
Supported by thy care
Through burning climes they pass us hurt
and Breathe in tainted alr.
When by the dreadful tempest borne
High on the broken
They know thou art not slow to hear
Nor impotent to save.
The storm is laid the winds retire
Obedient to thy will
The sea that roars at thy command
At thy command is still.
I[n] midst of dangers fears and deaths
Thy goodness will adore
We'll praise thee for thy mercies past
And humbly hope for more.
Our life while thou preservest that life
Thy sacrifice shall be
And death when death shalt be our lot
Shall join our souls to thee.
[From Journal of James Madison Pendleton, 1844; via E-Text Collection of SBTS, Louisville, KY; Adam Winters, Archivist. Scanned and formatted by Jim Duvall.]
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