Daniel Boone, referred to as "the most famous of the American pioneers," was the first successful explorer of Kentucky. This distinguished frontiersman was a grandson of George Boone, who was born in Devonshire, England, 1666; and a son of Squire Boone, born November 25, 1696. George Boone left England with his family for America, August 17, 1717, and settled in Pennsylvania, about twenty miles above Philadelphia, in Berks County.
On September 23, 1720, the son, Squire Boone, married Sarah Morgan, a daughter of Edward Morgan, in accordance with the Quaker ceremony. Daniel Boone, the fourth son and the sixth child of this wedlock, was born in a backwoods cabin in Berks County, Pennsylvania, November 2, 1734 (N. S.). He grew to boyhood amid the almost unbroken forests of the Schuylkill Valley. Here, he, no doubt, acquired his first passion for the adventures of the hunt and for the solitude of the wilderness which became the ruling passion of his life.1
After living in Pennsylvania over thirty years, Squire Boone moved with his family to North Carolina, and settled in the northwest corner of the state on the Yadkin River in Wilkes County, not far from Wilkesboro. The Yadkin region was then a wilderness filled with wild game. Here, a few years later, Daniel Boone married Rebecca Bryan, and engaged in hunting and farming. He became restless when the Yadkin region became more thickly settled and was eager for the solitude of the frontiers further to the west. "In 1761 he led a party of hunters into the southwestern part of Virginia to the headwaters of the Holston River. In 1764, he was employed by a party of land speculators to lead them into the Cumberland River country within the present boundaries of Kentucky."2
At the time of these early adventures of Daniel Boone, the colonial settlers along the Atlantic Coast, knew practically nothing about the vast wilderness country beyond the seemingly impenetrable mountains, later known as Kentucky. This unexplored territory formed a widely extended hunting ground on which Indian tribes of the North and South hunted wild game, including the buffalo and elk, and often met each other in bloody conflict. The tribes to the North were more to be feared by the early settlers, because of their easy access to the Kentucky territory, and the security of their hiding places from attack. Each and all of these tribes fiercely disputed the settlement of their hunting ground by the white pioneers. The explorers and early settlers had to contend with these savage tribes continually and were in constant danger of the tomahawk and scalping knife. There were only two practical routes of entrance to this unexplored country - the one by water down the Ohio River on the North - the other by land through the Cumberland Gap to the extreme southeast.3
This is the unknown country, which Daniel Boone and others set out to explore. Boone says: "It was on the first of May, in the year 1769, that I resigned my domestic happiness for a time, and left my family and peaceable habitation on the Yadkin River, in North Carolina, to wander through the wilderness of America, in quest of the country of Kentucke, in company with John Finley, John Stewart, Joseph Holden, James Monay, and William Cool. We proceeded successfully, and after a long and fatiguing journey through a mountainous wilderness, in a westward direction, on the seventh day of June following, we found ourselves on Red-River, where John Finley had formerly been trading with the Indians, and, from the top of an eminence, saw with pleasure the beautiful level of Kentucke."4
John Finley referred to above, had made an adventurous tour into the unexplored wilds beyond the Cumberland Mountains in 1767 for the two fold purpose of hunting and trading with the Indians. Here on the Red River, Daniel Boone and his five comrades built a hut and camped for the Summer and Fall of 1769. They were located in the midst of abundance of wild game, including bear, buffalo, deer, elk and other game, besides fowls of all kinds, both land and water.5 These six men passed through many experiences in tMs strange country during the seven months they were camped together. There were no signs to indicate that the Indians were in their territory, thus they felt secure against any attack and began to go out on hunting and exploring excursions, by twos for convenience. On December 22, Daniel Boone and James Stewart were out on a hunting and exploring expedition, when they were suddenly captured by a band of Indians, but they managed to escape after being held seven days. When they reached their camp they found it plundered and deserted. What had become of their four companions? They never knew. These, two men, Boone and Stewart, were left alone in a "boundless wilderness of forests, mountains, rivers, and lakes and their camp could be reached only by a journey of many weeks from the nearest settlements." In November, nearly a month before this sad occurence, a younger brother of Daniel Boone, who had been honored by his father's name, Squire, set out from the Yadkin Country in North Carolina, with a young adventurer, in search of his brother, who was thought to be lost in the wilderness.6
It was on January 1, 1770, after wandering through the wilds of Kentucky for weeks, that they accidently stumbled on the camp and the two brothers joined in a happy reunion. Of this occurence, Daniel Boone says, "About this time my brother, Squire Boon, with another adventurer, who came to explore the country, shortly after us, was wandering through the forest, determined to find me, if possible, and accidently found our camp."7
Some days after the arrival of Squire Boone and his companion, Daniel and James Stewart went out on another hunting trip and again fell into the hands of the Indians, when Stewart was slain, but Boone fortunately made his escape. Later the young companion of Squire Boone disappeared and the two brothers were left alone. They prepared a little shelter to protect them from the winter's storms. They did not give up in despair, but continued hunting and exploring the unknown regions.8
In the Spring of 1770 their ammunition and other supplies were running low, and it fell to the lot of the younger brother to return to North Carolina for a fresh supply. Daniel Boone says that on May 1, 1770 Squire "returned home to the settlement, by himself, for a new recruit of horses and ammunition, leaving me by myself, without bread, salt or sugar, without company with my fellow creatures, or even a horse or dog." It was during the months alone, that Daniel Boone made a tour on the Ohio. He says, "I surveyed the famous river Ohio . . . marking the western boundary of Kentucke." After three months' absence, Squire returned to his brother July 27, with ample supplies.9 The Boone brothers continued their wanderings through unexplored regions as far south as the Cumberland River, returning to their home in North Carolina March 1, 1771, after an absence of nearly three years.10
In the spring of 1770, James Knox, another pioneer hunter, led a company of forty men from Southwest Virginia through the Cumberland Gap westward on a hunting and trapping expedition. In October of the same year Knox with nine of these men sought fresh hunting ground in Central Kentucky. They toured the country south of the Kentucky River, exploring the territory of the Green River and the lower part of the Cumberland. They camped at one time near a flowing spring in what is now Wayne County, out from the present town of Monticello. Here they established a station for their skins and meat. They later moved to the west and camped on the Green River, near the present town of Greensburg, where all kinds of wild game were found. The Knox Party, known as Long Hunters, returned home in the Summer of 1771, and spread such a glorious report among the settlers of Western Virginia and North Carolina concerning the wonderful country they had visited, that the tide of emigration began soon to flow westward.11
Following the exploring expeditions of Daniel Boone and James Knox, the latter with his Long Hunters, came the surveyors who invaded the new country, searching for fertile lands, marking out favorable locations for settlements and laying off imaginary towns in strategic places, some of which became real. In May, 1771, Captain Thomas Bullitt, of French and Indian war fame, led a party of surveyors down the Ohio River to the Falls, and established camp on the Bear Grass Creek, and explored what is now Jefferson and Bullitt Counties. The following August Captain Bullitt surveyed a tract of land where Louisville now stands, and laid off town lots. Three brothers from Virginia, James, George, and Robert McAfee, accompanied Bullitt down the Ohio to the Kentucky River, which they and others ascended, exploring the country, and making many surveys.12
In May, 1774 Colonel James Harrod, who had been a valuable member of Captain Bullitt's surveying party, left his Virginia home with thirty-one men for Kentucky, entering by the Ohio River. They finally reached what is now Mercer County, and on June 16, 1774 built the first log cabin in Kentucky, near where Harrodsburg is now located. Colonel Harrod and his men laid off town lots, on which cabins were erected. The place was first called Harrodstown in honor of James Harrod, but later was named Harrodsburg. There was an early attack on tihe place by the Indians and two of Harrod's men were slain.13
Daniel Boone, after returning to North Carolina from his first exploring expedition, determined to bring his family as soon as possible, to live in Kentucky, which he claimed "to be the second paradise." On September 23, 1773, all arrangements having been completed, Daniel Boone and his family bid farewell to their relatives and friends and started on the long wilderness journey to Kentucky. They were joined by five other families, and by forty well armed men. This large company with their pack horses started toward their destination with great confidence, until October 17, 1773, when they were attacked by a large band of Indians as they were nearing the Cumberland Mountains. In the fierce engagement six of their men were killed, including Daniel Boone's oldest son. Under the protest of Boone the company retreated forty miles to a settlement on the Clinch River in Virginia, where the Boone family remained until 1775.14
In 1774 there were a number of surveyors from Virginia, who were exposed to a threatened Indian uprising. Governor Dunmore of that state employed Daniel Boone with one companion to go as far as the Falls on the Ohio River and warn them of tine coming conflict. Boone and his comrade hastened from the River Clinch on their mission, delivered the warning message and led the alarmed surveyors through1 the Cumberland Gap, back to Virginia, having travelled over 800 miles, and covering a period of 68 days.
During 1774, Colonel Richard Henderson, born in Virginia in 1735, came to Kentucky, and formed a land company called Transylvania. Colonel Henderson, through this company, purchased from the Cherokee Indians the title to all the country South of the Kentucky River for the purpose of planting colonies, and selling land to tihe settlers. It was in connection with this land deal that Daniel Boone was employed to make extensive surveys and to cut a road through the wilderness to Cumberland Gap for Henderson's pack horses and wagons.
Daniel Boone with twenty-five men began laying the foundation of a fort on the Kentucky River on April 1, 1775, in what was to be Madison County, called Boonesboro in his honor. While the fort was being constructed, Boone and his company suffered from attacks by the Indians, which caused some of his men to desert and return to their home. About the 20th of April, Colonel Henderson arrived at the fort with supplies from Virginia and with forty men, which called for the erection of more cabins, and the completion of the stockade.15
As soon as the fort was completed, Daniel Boone determined to bring his family to Kentucky "at all hazards". He says, "On the 14th day of June 1775, having completed the fort, I returned to my family on the River Clinch, and soon after removed them to this fort." They arrived safely on September 8 at Boonesboro with twenty armed young men. Boone's wife and daughters were the first white women to stand on the banks of the Kentucky River. Squire Boone and his family soon followed. The four Bryan brothers, relatives of the Boones arrived with their families, and with thirty armed men. Early in the Spring of 1776 Colonel Richard Callaway with his wife and two daughters, and two other families settled in Boonesboro. In the fall of the same year Hugh MeGary, Richard Hogan and Thomas Denton with their families, settled in Harrodstown.16
In March, 1775 Colonel Benjamin Logan came to Kentucky from Virginia,
built a fort, bearing his name, about one mile west of Stanford in what is now Lincoln County. One year later Colonel Logan brought his family to the fort soon to be followed by other families. Two years later Fort Logan was attacked by the Indians and a number of the inhabitants were murdered. In May, 1775 Simon Kenton with a company of men built a camp within a mile of the present town of Washington, in Mason County. They cleared a plot of ground and planted about an acre of corn with the grains, which they had brought from Virginia. In season they enjoyed the first roasting ears produced by a white man on the north side of the Kentucky River. Kenton and his company explored much of the surrounding country.17
The hostile feeling between England and tihe thirteen Colonies reached a climax when the Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. Following this momentous event, the many Indian tribes in all sections, took up arms, without delay in behalf of the English against the Colonies. The Tribes to the North of the Ohio River became a continual terror to the scattered settlements in Kentucky by their frequent and unexpected attacks.
On July 17, 1776, there was great excitement and distress in the settlement at Boonesboro over the capture of three girls by a band of savages. The captives were Jemima Boone, a daughter of Daniel Boone, and Elizabeth Callaway with her sister, Fannie, daughters of Colonel Richard Callaway. The young ladies were out in a canoe on the Kentucky River, in sight of the fort, when they were taken by the Indians and carried away. Their screams aroused the settlers, and soon their fathers, lovers, and others were in hot pursuit. They succeeded in rescuing the girls thirty-five miles from Boonesboro, and returned them to their homes the next day.18
On August 7, three weeks after this sad incident, there occurred an occasion of joy in Boonesboro, when Elizabeth Callaway, the eldest daughter of Colonel Richard Callaway was united in wedlock to Samuel Henderson, who helped to rescue her from the Indians. In this first marriage in Kentucky, the ceremony was performed by Squire Boone, the "brother of Daniel, "who was ah occasional preacher in the Calvinistic Baptist Church".19
The first government formed for the benefit of the early settlers of Kentucky was established by the Transylvania Land Company of which Richard Henderson was promoter, as already referred to Henderson called a Convention to be composed of delegates from tihe four settlements, embraced in his territory, which met in Boonesboro in May, 1775, with all the formalities of a legislative body. A code of laws was passed, calling for a Court of Justice, the punishment of criminals, and condemning swearing and Sabbath breaking. Daniel and Squire Boone introduced bills to preserve the game, to protect the public range and to promote good breeding of horses.20
The Transylvania Company had already established a land office in Boonesboro to make terms on which land would be sold to settlers. But before the end of the year the settlers were becoming dissatisfied with the government; with the increased price of land; and with the extravagant fees charged for surveying and handling the deal. In December, 1775 a petition signed by eighty-four men was sent to the Virginia legislature, requesting that the State take jurisdiction over all the territory claimed by the Transylvania Company.
By an Act of the Legislature of Virginia, December 31, 1776, all the vast territory, extending from the Tennessee boundary to the Ohio River, was constituted into one County to be known as Kentucky County, Virginia. This act entitled the new county to two representatives in the Virginia State Legislature, to a County Court and to the various county officers. Harrodstown was chosen as the county seat, and the first court in Kentucky was held in September the following year.
At the close of 1775, there were not more than 300 inhabitants in all the settlements of the Kentucky territory. A census taken of Harrodstown in 1777 showed only 198 inhabitants. Probably at the same time there were not more than that number in both Boonesboro and Logan Fort together. During the first years of the War of the Revolution the coming of permanent settlers to Kentucky County had almost ceased. Individuals and companies were continually arriving but an equal number were returning to their former abode, due largely, no doubt, to the horrible Indian invasion from which there was no protection. The population of all the settlements remained about the same until the great immigration movement into Kentucky, which began during the year 1779. When the settlement began to be formed on the North side of the Kentucky River, the Virginia Legislature passed an Act, October, 1779, to put into operation a ferry at Boonesboro, which provided transportation for the settlers on both sides of the river. This was the first ferry in Kentucky, and the price across was fifty cents.21
The Virginia Legislature passed two Acts, which were beneficial to Kentucky County. In 1779 an Act was passed to open a Pack Horse road from Cumberland Gap through Kentucky County on account of the ever increasing emigration from that State into the Kentucky territory. In May, 1780 an Act of the Virginia Legislature made Kentucky more desirable for settlers. This Act called for the division of Kentucky County into three counties - Jefferson, with its county seat at Louisville; Lincoln with its seat of government at Harrodstown; and Fayette with Lexington as its seat. The formation of these counties provided three courts, three sets of county officers, and six representatives in the Virginia Legislature. Three years later, the three counties were formed into a Judicial District, and Judges were appointed. The first session of this Circuit Court was held at Harrodstown, March, 1783, after which Danville was made the permanent place for holding the Courts.22
The great migration from Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina, which began in 1779, increased yearly following the war. When the Peace Treaty between Great Britain and the Colonies was signed November 30, 1782, it is estimated that there were already 12,000 people in Kentucky, and within the next two years this number increased to 20,000 souls. The early settlements were largely rural, and confined to a great extent to what is now known as the Blue Grass Section. The census of 1790 gives the population of the state, 73,677, at which time the population of Lexington was 834; Washington, 462; Louisville, 350; Bardstown, 216; and Danville, 150. There were other towns in the State, as Harrodstown, Boonesboro, and Maysville, but they were not included in this census.23
That the trials of the early settlers were "manifold and severe" was evident from several viewpoints. They all suffered alike the perils and hardships
of the long journey from their native states to the then far western wilds of the Kentucky country. Those from Northwest Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland came down the Ohio River in flat boats, landing at points where Maysville, and Louisville would be located. This route was long and hazardous because of the slowness and danger of the flat boats, and because, day and night, the river was watched by the Indians to plunder and kill. Then when the pioneers would arrive at the landing places, they would have to make their way through the unbroken wilderness to the locations, where settlements were to be made.
Those who emigrated from Eastern and Central Virginia and North Carolina entered through Cumberland Gap, and by pack horses, over mountains and plains, would finally reach their destination, after travelling hundreds of miles. There were no roads cut through the great forests, with the dense underbrush, nor bridges across the stream, and no protection from the rain and cold. After they would arrive at the places of settlement, they found no houses to live in, no fields cleared for planting, and no kind of supplies, to be obtained in the wilderness.
Some of the hardships of the early settlers in Kentucky are thus described by Theodore Roosevelt in "Winning of the West": "At the Falls, they were sickly, suffering with fever and ague; many of the children were dying. Boonesboro and Harrodsburg were very dirty; the inhabitants were sickly, and the offal and dead beasts lay about, poisoning the air and water. During the winter no more corn could be procured than was enough to furnish an occasional hoe cake. The people sickened on a steady diet of buffalo-bull beef, cured in smoke without salt, and prepared for the table by boiling. The buffalo was the stand-by of the settlers; they used his flesh as their common food, and his robe for covering; they made mocassins of his hide, and fiddle strings of his sinews, and combs out of his horns. They spun his winter coat into yarn, and out of it, they made cloth, like wool. They made a harsh linen of the rotted nettles. They got sugar from the maples."24
One of the greatest trials of the pioneer settlers was their terrible trouble with the Indians, as already referred to in this chapter. These savage tribes were everywhere and all men were in mortal fear of their lives. The Indians claimed the entire territory of Kentucky as their best hunting grounds and opposed its settlement by every method of cruelty they could devise. Forts were built for protection, and the settlers were often kept in for weeks, from their farms and other outside duties. They attended their places of worship with rifles on their shoulders. It is estimated that between 1783 and 1790 over fifteen hundred settlers in Kentucky were massacred by these savage tribes or taken into captivity, but these pioneer Kentuckians knew no defeat. Their purpose was to conquer the enemy, subdue the land, and prepare the way for the teeming millions, who would come after, to enjoy the fruit of their sacrifices.
Another trial, which involved the early settlers was the continued dispute over land titles, resulting in long litigations, which engendered bitterness and alienations among the land owners. Individuals with land warrants were permitted to survey a certain amount of government bounty land. Often these surveys would over-lap one another, or several persons would locate on the same survey. A Kentucky historian says: "The laws of Virginia for the appropriation of lands were the greatest curse that ever befell Kentucky. Sometimes as many as five or six patents covered the same piece of land; and the occupant, besides the title under which he entered, frequently had to purchase two or three times more, or lose his home and labor."25
Because of the defective titles referred to above, Daniel Boone lost all his fine land holding around Boonesborough and left Kentucky in disgust, and went to Virginia about 1892 , and remained about two years. In 1794, he received information about the new country far to the west along the Missouri River, and in 1795 moved with his family from Virginia to the Femme Osage Country in the District of St. Charles about forty-five miles west of St. Louis. Here his wife, Rebecca Boone, died on March 18, 1813, at the age of seventy-four years.
Daniel Boone passed away September 26, 1820 in the home of his son, Nathan, at the age of eighty-six years. By an Act of the Legislature of Kentucky, the remains of Col. Daniel Boone and wife were removed, in 1845, to the cemetery at Frankfort, Kentucky, where "slumber many of Kentucky's noblest sons."26
Much has been written and many opinions expressed as to the religious life of Daniel Boone. His parents, Squire Boone and Sarah Morgan Boone, showed their interest in the Holy Scriptures by giving Bible names to six of their children out of eleven. About three years after Daniel Boone married Rebecca Bryan in 1755, the great evangelist, Shubal Stearns, visited the Yadkin region in North Carolina, and greatly impressed the community with the gospel. As a result of these revivals, the Boone's Ford Baptist Church was organized by John Gano at the request of the Charleston Association in South Carolina and he was pastor from 1756 to 1760. This church was located "on the Davie (County, west) side of the Yadkin, not far from the river toward Jerusalem." The home of Squire and Sarah Boone, parents of Daniel, stood on the east side of the Yadkin in Boone Township, Davidson County. The Boone family must have had great influence in the Yadkin section to have the church and township in their name.27
There are no records of any nature that show that Daniel Boone was ever a member of this church, but it is a historical fact "that Daniel Boone's family were members." It is also known that, either under the evangelistic work of Shubal Stearns or under the ministry of John Gano, Squire Boone the younger brother of Daniel, was converted, united with the church and became a Baptist preacher. The brief records indicate that Daniel Boone's sympathies were with the Baptists. After the death of his wife in 1813, he later lived with his daughter, Jemima, and her husband, Flanders Callaway, who were located on a farm in Warren County, Missouri. In 1818, a Baptist church was organized in the Callaway home by Rev. J. E. Welch, missionary of the Triennial Convention, where Daniel Boone at that time was living.28 Mr. Welch thus describes Col. Boone as he saw him at one of his meetings in 1818: "He was rather low of stature, broad shoulders, high cheek-bones, very mild countenance, fair complexion,soft and quiet in his manner, little to say unless spoken to . . . . He never made a profession of religion, but still was what the world calls a very moral man."29
During the summer of 1819, a distinguished artist, Chester Harding, went out from St. Louis to take a sketch for a portrait of Colonel Boone. The old pioneer was so feeble, that he was supported by the same Rev. James E. Welch, who, two years before, constituted the Baptist Church in the same house. In a letter written to Sarah Boone, the wife of his brother, Samuel Boone, dated October 19, 1816, occurs Daniel Boone's conception of religion: "Relating to our famaly and how we Leve in this World and what Chance we shall have in the next we know Not for my part I am as ignerant as a Child all the Relegan I have to Love and fear god beleve in Jeses Christ Don all the good to my Nighbour and my self that I can and Do as Little harm as I Can help and trust on gods marcy for the Rest and I Beleve god neve made a man of my prisepel to be Lost and I flater my self Deer sister that you are well on your way in Cristeanaty gave my Love to all your Childran and all my frends fearwell my Deer sister"30
1. Thwaites, Reuben Gold, Daniel Boone, p. 6, 7.
2. Crismon, Leo T., The Boone Family and Kentucky Baptists, p. 4.
3. Collins, Lewis, History of Kentucky; by the late Lewis Collins . . . Revised, enlarged four-fold, and brought down to the year 1874, by his Son, Richard H. Collins, Vol. 1, p. 15.
4. Filson, John, Kentucky and the Adventures of Col. Daniel Boone, p. 51.
5. Abbott, John S. C., Daniel Boone, the Pioneer of Kentucky, p. 97, 98.
6. Ibid., p. 107.
7. Filson, John, op. cit., p. 52, 53.
8. Cotterill, R. S., History of Pioneer Kentucky, p. 53.
9. Filson, John, op. cit., p. 54-56.
10. Collins, Lewis, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 57.
11. Ibid., Vol. 2, p. 295, 417, 418; Cotterill, R. S., op. cit. p. 54-56.
12. Collins, Lewis, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 17, 248; Vol. 2, p. 358.
13. Cotterill, R. S., op. cit., p. 64.
14. Spraker, Hazel Atterbury, The Boone Family, p. 570.
15. Cotterill, R. S., op. cit., p. 88, 89.
16. Thwaites, Reuben Gold, op. cit., p. 125; Filson, John, op. cit., p. 60.
17. Collins, Lewis, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 444, 482, 483.
18. Thwaites, Reuben Gold, op. cit., p. 134-136.
19. Collins, Lewis, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 511; Vol. 2, p. 521.
20. Ibid., Vol. 2, p. 505, 506.
21. Ibid., Vol. 2, p. 514.
22. Thompson, Ed. Porter, A Young People's History of Kentucky, p. 109.
23. Cotterill, R. S., op. cit, p. 244.
24. Roosevelt, Theodore, The Winning of the West, Vol. 3, p. 204, 205.
25. Collins, Lewis, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 633.
26. Ford, Samuel Howard, "Visit to the Grave of John L. Waller," The Christian Repository, Sept., 1855, p. 567-569.
27. Gano, John, Biographical Memoirs of the Late Rev. John Gano, p. 81- 85; Sheets, Henry, A History of the Liberty Baptist Association, p. 122, 123; Spraker, Hazel Atterbury, op. cit., p. 36, 37.
28. Duncan, Robert S., A Memorial Sermon Preached at the Completion of the First Fifty Years History of the Bear Creek Association, 1904, p. 4, 5.
29. Thwaites, Reuben Gold, op. cit., p. 236, 237.
30. Ibid., p. 233, 234; Peck, John Mason, "Life of Daniel Boone" in The Library of American Biography, by Jared Sparks, Second Series, Vol. XIII, p. 186-190.
[From Frank M. Masters, A History of Baptists in Kentucky, 1953, pp. 1-9. Scanned and formatted by Jim Duvall.]
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