Baptist History Homepage
A History of Kentucky Baptists
By J. H. Spencer
Volume II, 1885
Chapter 1.
[Section 10]

[Bethel Association - pages 354-388; South Concord Association - pages 388-394; New Salem Association - 394-397]

Bethel Association
The history of the origin of this large, wealthy and prosperous fraternity has been sufficiently detailed in the general history, and in the history of Red River Association. It will suffice to repeat here a very brief account of its origin. A difference of sentiment existed in Red River Association, as early as 1816. This difference related chiefly to the nature and extent of the atonement; and the duty and privilege of ministers to call on sinners to repent and believe the gospel. For a time, these differences of opinion caused no strife. But afterwards, several brethren, prominent among whom was Elder Absalom Bainbridge, moved from within the bounds of Licking Association, and settled within those of Red River. As soon as they obtained a footing in the churches, they began to stir up strife; and the meetings of Red River Association soon exhibited scenes of contention and bitterness. The strife continued to grow more fierce and bitter, till the year 1824, when the Association called on the churches to meet in a convention, and attempt to adjust their doctrinal differences. The convention,
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composed of messengers from 24 churches, met at Union meeting-house, in Logan county, Nov. 24, 1824. The only cause of complaint presented to the meeting, was, "The preaching of the atonement to be general or universal, in its nature." After discussing the subject, the convention unanimously resolved as follows: "We agree, after all that has been said on the subject of the atonement, although some little deference of sentiment exists, to live together in peace and harmony, bearing and forbearing with each other." This proposition was submitted to the churches, with the cherished hope that it would meet their approval, and thus end the strife. But the hope was vain. At the meeting of the Association, in 1825, it was found that 16 out of the 30 churches composing the body, had declared their determination not to abide by the agreement of the convention.

The practicability of a reconciliation was now despaired of, and the body resolved to divide, peaceably. The eastern division was to retain the name of Red River; the western, to adopt a new appellation. Every church, in both divisions, was to have the privilege of uniting with either association; and any church member, dissatisfied with his associational connection, was to have the privilege of joining any church of the other association. In accordance with this arrangement, messengers from 10 churches, met at Mt. Gilead, in Todd county, Oct. 28, 1825. An introductory sermon was delivered by Isaac Hodgen of Russells Creek Association, from Psalm 133:1. William Warder was chosen Moderator of the meeting, and Sugg Fort, Clerk. The names of the messengers present were enrolled, and the convention entered upon its deliberations, as to the expediency of organizing an association. The enterprise was deemed expedient, and, on the following morning, a permanent organization was effected, by electing Reuben Ross, Moderator, and Sugg Fort, Clerk. The messengers from Russellville and Union churches, in Logan county, dissenting from the conclusion of the convention, withdrew. The remaining messengers then resolved themselves into a body, under the style of Bethel Baptist Association. The following churches entered into the constitution: Red River and Drakes Pond, in Robertson county (Tenn.); Spring Creek of West Fork and Little West Fork, in Montgomery county (Tenn.); Mt. Gilead, in Todd county; New Providence, in Christian; and Pleasant Grove, in Logan.
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The ordained ministers belonging to these churches, were Reuben Ross, Sugg Fort and Wm. C. Warfield. Immediately after the organization was effected, the following churches were received, on their petition: Elkton, Lebanon, and Mt. Zion, all in Todd county. The ordained preachers belonging to these churches, were John S. Wilson, Isaiah H. Boone, and Robert Rutherford. The new fraternity adopted the constitution, abstract of principles, and rules of decorum, of Red River Association, without modification.

The mother fraternity, and the daughter, whose churches were intermingled on the same territory, began their rival career, in 1825, the former with 20 churches, aggregating 1,268 members, and the latter, with 11 churches, aggregating 949. The difference in the doctrine and polity of the two fraternities, was, that Red River believed in a limited sacrifice, in the death of Christ; that God would save the elect without human means, and, that it was not permitted to ministers to preach the gospel to unregenerate sinners, or warn them to repent and believe on Christ; while Bethel believed in a sacrifice, adequate to the redemption of all men; that God used means in bringing men to salvation, and, that it was the duty of ministers to preach the gospel to all men, warning all to repent and believe the gospel. The reader now has access to the history of both fraternities, during a period of 55 years.

The second session (first anniversary) of Bethel Association convened at Bethel meeting house, in Christian county, September 2, 1826. Reuben Ross preached the introductory sermon. The former officers were re-elected, and John Pendleton was chosen assistant clerk. Hopewell church in Robertson county, Tenn. was received into the fraternity, which then numbered 12 churches, with 1,018 members, the circular letter, prepared by Reuben Ross, William Tandy, and Sugg Fort, set forth the reasons for withdrawing from Red River Association, and closed with the following words:
"Is it not abundantly evident from Scripture, that Christ satisfied the holy law of God, and by virtue of that satisfaction all the mercies that a lost world receives from God must flow? And is it not equally evident, that on the ground of that satisfaction, the gospel is to be preached to every creature? And is it not also abundantly evident from the scriptures, that in the

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exhibition of the gospel, sinners are called upon to repent of their sins, and believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, as exhibited by our Lord and his apostles? These are the things for which we are complained of. These doctrines we believe and feel ourselves bound to preach."

While connected with Red River Association, the churches now comprising the new fraternity, had been restrained from making any systematic effort to secure more preaching. But being freed from this restraint, they set about the accomplishment of their cherished desire. During its session, the Association transacted the following items of business.

"2. Agreeably to the request of several churches,
Resolved, That we establish circuit preaching within the bounds of our Association. Elder S. Fort to commence in October, Elder Wilson in November, Elder Tandy in December, Elder Rutherford in March, Elder Ross in April. The circuit to embrace all the churches in our Association. Also that a general meeting of the preachers belonging to the churches of this Association, is requested to be held at Spring Creek of the West Fork meeting house, on Thursday before the first Lord's day in May next. This is to be considered an annual meeting for the purpose of carrying into effect the circuit preaching above named."

In this arrangement there was no provision for compensating the ministers on whom this additional burden was laid. The general meeting was to becomposed of the preachers only; and the object seems to have been merely to divide among themselves the labor of supplying the destitution within the bounds of the Association. The churches appear to have taken no part in the council, or in carrying out its conclusions. This was not so much on account of their unwillingness to share the burden with their ministers as because of their ignorance of the fact that it was their duty to do so. They had been raised up under the care of Red River Association where Antinomianism largely prevailed, and there was an especial repugnance to what was sarcastically termed "a hireling clergy." Every preacher who demanded the smallest fraction of a support as a condition of his serving a church was reckoned among the "hirelings," and condemned accordingly. As to supporting a minister to go to the destitute, such a thing had not
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been dreamed of. The churches which composed the new Association, had so far understood the language of the great commission, as to conceive that the gospel ought to be preached to all men, but they had not yet learned that it was their duty to support those who preached it. Hence they now called upon their ministers to make an additional tale of brick, without furnishing them with straw. However, a new impulse was given to preaching the gospel among the destitute, and better methods of accomplishing it were ultimately developed.

The annual meeting of the ministers, and their gratuitous labors were the only means used for the spread of the gospel, for a number of years. In 1831, the Association resolved to have what they termed "a yearly meeting," the first convening of which was to be at Hopewell church, in Robertson county, Tenn., in May of the following year. All the ministers belonging to the Association were requested to attend. The purpose of this meeting is not stated, and no report of its proceedings was made. It is inferred, however, that it was intended to promote the preaching of the gospel within the bounds of the Association.

The teachings of Alexander Campbell began to agitate the churches of this Association, about 1828. During this date, James A. Lindsey gathered a congregation at a place called Noah Springs, which he organized on Mr. Campbell's plan, and which grew quite rapidly, for a time. Absalom Adams, a young preacher raised up in Mt. Gilead church, William T. Major, a licensed preacher in Salem church, another licensed preacher, whose name has not been ascertained, and Isaiah H. Boone, a minister of some ability in Mt. Zion church, also espoused the teachings of Mr. Campbell, and advocated them in the Spirit of that system. In its deliberations, the Association took no notice of these innovations, except, indirectly, in its circular letters. In that of 1829, written by William Tandy, the exercise of brotherly love is urged upon the brotherhood, in the spirit of the gentle and amiable writer; that of 1830, prepared by John S. Wilson, contains the following passages, which sufficiently indicate its purport: "In addressing you again, we would affectionately invite your attention to this, the source and fountain, the root and life of all christian excellence, christian duty and christian comfort. -- We mean daily, personal
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communion and fellowship with God, by the influence and indwelling of his Holy Spirit, through Jesus Christ our Lord." During the succeeding year, the churches infected by the heresy, took action upon the subject, and expelled such of the would be "reformers," as could not be reclaimed. The circular letter of 1831, written by William Warder, contains the following sentence: "The common pestilence, which has afflicted the Baptist society generally, and particularly some of the Associations in Kentucky, has afflicted us. It is true, there are but three of our churches, where the votaries of reform (so-called) are sufficiently numerous to form a body capable of self-government; yet many of the churches have had the subject before them, on account of one or more of their members having adopted the doctrine and thereby become troublesome in the house of God. Indeed where no member has been carried astray by it, such has been the deleterious effects, which it has on society, by diverting the mind from better things, that it has operated as a mildew on the prosperity of Zion. There always comes up a point, in the progress of government, where action becomes inevitable. That time is past, as regards our churches, and resulted in separation from those who embrace, and continued to adhere to the offensive doctrines and practices of this reformation. Five preachers, three ordained and two licensed, with about 70 members, are separated from us. It is not anticipated that there are many, if any, remaining fragments of this irritating reformation among us." The loss to the Association, in numbers, was small, and I. H. Boone was the only preacher of any prominence that was cut off by the schism.

In 1832, a resolution was passed, heartily endorsing the Kentucky Baptist Convention, which had been constituted in March, of that year, and messengers were appointed to attend its approaching meeting, or meetings. John S. Wilson attended the convention, as a messenger, and reported favorably, in writing, to the next meeting of the Association. On receiving this report, the Association, "with great unanimity." adopted the following: "Resolved. That this Association look upon the 'Kentucky Baptist Convention,' in its effort to preach the glorious gospel, to the needy, as doing a good and great work; and we commend it to the churches for their consideration and cooperation." It may have been observed that Bethel Association
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was the largest contributor to the funds of the Convention, having paid into its treasury, at its first annual meeting, $61, while Lexington Missionary Association, the next largest contributor, paid only $50. Bethel Association appears not to have beenrepresented in the Convention but the onetime. But William Tandy, one of her ministers, being present at the meeting of that body, in 1835, made a donation of $20, which was double the amount of the next largest contribution.

The subject of Sunday schools was first brought before the Association, in 1833, when the following preamble and resolution were adopted:

"Whereas, The church at Salem has called the attention of this body to the subject of Sunday schools; and whereas we view it as a subject involving deep interest to the rising generation; therefore,
"Resolved, That we recommend to the churches, the encouragement of Sunday schools in the bounds of their respective congregations."

This important branch of christain labor, thus early, introduced, has been regarded with continuous favor, by the Association, to the present time; and, although the churches were slow in taking hold of it, the interest has gradually increased, until it has become one of the leading objects of benevolence, fostered by this fraternity. To give a detailed history of the progress of this, or any other branch of christian benevolence, supported by this body, would far transcend our allotted limits.

There was a spirit of deep piety and trustful dependence on God manifested by the fathers of this fraternity. The following resolutions, the first, adopted in 1832, and the second in 1834, need no explanation:

"Resolved unanimously, That the Friday before the fourth Lords day in October, be observed by all the churches, as a day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer to Almighty God, that he would be graciously pleased to revive religion in all our churches, and that he would avert the direful ravages of the Asiatic Cholera which seems to be making slow, but steady progress towards the West."

"In consequence of the unprecedented sickness and death which have visited our country during the present year, and in
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view of the alarming apathy, as it respects religious matters, which prevails generally throughout the bounds of our Association; therefore,

"Resolved unanimously, That we set apart the first Saturday in November, as a day of humiliation, fasting, and prayer to Almighty God, that he may be graciously pleased to remove the chastening rod from us: that he may once more revive religion, and cause his face to shine upon us; and that he may supply all of our churches with faithful pastors 'for the harvest is great, but the laborers are few.'"

The next enterprise inaugurated by the Association, was an attempt to provide for the education of young men called to the ministry. The following preamble and resolutions were adopted, in 1834: "Whereas, One of our churches has requested this Association, to consider the propriety of raising a fund for the purpose of educating young men who may be called by the churches to preach the gospel, and the Association being deeply impressed with the importance of such a measure; therefore,

"Resolved unanimously, That this matter be referred to the churches, with the request that they will send up the result of their deliberations, to the next Association.

"Resolved, That in the event of the approval of this measure, by the churches, they are hereby requested to send up, at each annual meeting of the Association, such contributions as they can raise; and it shall be the duty of the Association to appoint a committee of their own body, to superintend the distribution of said funds, and report their proceedings annually to the Association."

The following year, some of the churches, at least, having approved the measure, the Association appointed trustees for an education society, which had been previously organized by William Warder. The names of the trustees were, R. Ross, W. Warder, R. Rutherford, R. T. Anderson, D. I. Burks, W. Tandy, J. Pendleton, J. Mallory, N. Pegram, W. I. Morton, T. Grubbs, G. Brown, J. M. Pendleton, A. Webber, J. Hale, W. C. Warfield, H. Boone, D. W. Poor, O. H. Morrow, J. P. Graves, and R. W. Nixon. David I. Burks was appointed treasurer of the funds, sent up by the churches, and the trustees,
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seven of whom constituted a quorum, were required to apply them to their proper use, and report their proceedings annually, to the Association.

The first benificiaries of the education fund, were the now venerable James Lamb and L.H. Milikin. The trustees appropriated to the use of each, in November, 1835, $33. In 1839, it was ordered that the sum of $55, then in the treasury, "be appropriated to the benefit of brethren James and Gardner," then at Georgetown college. The Association then enacted the following: "Since the endowment of Georgetown college has susperceded the necessity of education societies here: Resolved, That the Bethel education society be now dissolved." In 1845, a collection of $60 was taken up "to send Bro. Gunn to Georgetown college." A collection of $40 was taken up for the same purpose, the following year. In 1849, the committee on education, of which Samuel Baker was chairman, reported in favor of establishing a high school within the bounds of the Association. This resulted in the locating of Bethel high school at Russellville, and, subsequently, the establishment of a female high school at Hopkinsville. Both of these institutions were afterwards chartered as colleges, an account of which has been given in the general history.

In 1836, revised articles of faith were adopted. The following three articles differ from those of Red River Association, which had been at first adopted:
"IV. That the election taught in the scriptures, is through sanctification of the spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ; and that none are authorized to consider themselves elected to salvation, until they repent and believe the gospel.

"V. That the Redeemer, by the grace of God, tasted death for every man; that he is the Savior of all men, especially of those that believe, and that, based on the provision made in the atonement, all men everywhere are commanded to repent of their sins, and believe on the Lord Jesus.

"VI. That the influence of the Spirit of God is co-extensive with the proclamation of the gospel." At the same session the churches were most earnestly recommended to establish and perseveringly maintain weekly prayer meetings. The following preamble and resolutions were also adopted at this session:
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"Whereas the American Bible Society has refused to aid in circulating versions of the Bible, in which the Greek word baptizo, and its cognates are translated by words signifying immerse, immersion, &c., thereby excluding from its patronage, all translations made by Baptist missionaries:
Therefore, Resolved, That it is inexpedient for the Baptist denomination any longer to contribute their funds to the above named society. And whereas, our Baptist brethren in New York, have organized themselves into a society, called 'the American and Foreign Bible Society,' the object of which is to disseminate the scriptures in our own, but particularly in foreign lands.
Therefore, Resolved, That we affectionately and earnestly advise the churches composing this Association, to give of their abundant means, to advance the benevolent object contemplated in the formation of the society referred to."

A resolution of similar purport was passed the next year, and it was recommended that Bible societies, auxiliary to the American and Foreign Bible Society, be formed. In 1843, the Missionary and Bible Society of Bethel Association was constituted. The Harmony and Elkton Female Missionary Societies were admitted as auxiliaries. The immediate receipts of the society amounted to $1,488.52˝. The objects of the society were to supply the demand, within its bounds, for Bibles, religious book and the preaching of the gospel, and to aid the American and Foreign Bible Society, the Indian Mission Association, and the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions. After the formation of the Southern Baptist Convention, the society directed its benevolence through the boards of that body. This society was liberal and prosperous, and accomplished much good, especially in its home work. It continued its operations till 1849, when Bethel Association was chartered by the Kentucky Legislature, "for Bible, missionary and educational purposes." The Association adopted the charter, in 1850, and has since operated, in its home work, through boards and other agencies of its own appointment.

In 1838, the Association adopted a resolution, approving the objects of the General Association of Kentucky Baptists, which had been constituted, the year before. But its observation of the insufficiency of the Kentucky Baptist Convention, to supply the destitute with preaching, made it distrustful of the
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ability of the new organization, to meet the demands that would be made upon it. Accordingly, in 1839, it referred to the churches, for their consideration, the important question, as to the propriety of employing a preacher to labor all his time within the bounds of the Association. The churches appear to have responded favorably; for at the meeting of the body, in 1840, J. P. Campbell, A. Webber, J. Ellison, R. Ross, R. T. Anderson, R. Rutherford, W. I. Morton and J. Garnett, Sr., were appointed a committee, whose duty it was made to employ a Missionary, fix his salary, and select the field of his labor.

This "committee" was the first missionary board of Bethel Association. R. W. January was the first missionary employed. He labored only six months, but his report was encouraging. "He rode 1,833 miles, witnessed the conversion of 160 persons, baptized 41 himself, preached 196 sermons, exhorted 71 times, delivered 6 temperance discourses, formed 6 temperance societies, and aided in the constitution of two churches and one Sabbath school." R. W. Nixon was the missionary for the next year. "He preached 268 sermons, attended 20 protracted meetings . . . witnessed 379 conversions, constituted 3 churches, and traveled 3,023 miles." In 1842, the churches sent up $401, for the associational mission, and James Lamb was employed as missionary. He labored the entire year, and reported that he had traveled "about 3,000 miles, preached 374 sermons, delivered 129 exhortations, witnessed 226 additions, chiefly by baptism, and aided in constituting two churches." A great revival had prevailed among the churches during this year, and 613 baptisms were reported. Much enthusiasm prevailed during the sitting of the Association. Resolutions were passed, commending the several benevolent societies of the denomination, and the contributions to the various benevolent enterprises were much larger than ever before. The corresponding letter of that year says: "Our present session has been one of deep interest. The churches seem to evince a desire to obey our Lord's last command: 'Go ye into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature.'"

The Association and the churches composing it, were as well organized and as deeply imbued with the spirit of their mission, as any similar organization in the State; and no fraternity in the West could boast an abler body of men, either in
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the pulpit, or in the pew. With few changes of polity, or methods of procedure, that have not already been noted, the Association continued its course of activity, with almost unexampled prosperity, from the last nameddate, till 1860. Towards the close of this period, there began to be some antagonism of feeling between the Baptists of the Green River country and those of the northern part of the State. The former regarded the latter as having become lax in the maintenance of Baptist principles, especially, in that they practiced pulpit affiliation with other denominations of professed Christians, engaged in union meetings, and received alien baptism. This breach of harmony continued to widen, until there appeared to be grounds of apprehending a division in the denomination, in the State. The inharmony was expressed in the following resolution, adopted by Bethel Association, in 1860: "Resolved, That we think favorably of the suggestion of Little River Association to form a General Association in the Green River country and Southern Kentucky, and that the matter be referred to the churches." Before the churches had time to consider and report their views on the subject, the Civil War broke out, and the matter was dropped. Another important measure was disscussed at this meeting. Bethel church had suggested, in her letter, that the missionary work of the Association should be performed more directly by the churches, several of which were abundantly able to support a missionary, each, for all his time. The Association approved the suggestion. But the War much impoverished the churches, and the laudable purpose was thwarted.

During the War, the home mission work of the Association was virtually suspended. But it was resumed, in 1865, and notwithstanding the churches had been greatly reduced in their abilities, the work has been kept up, as have been all its other benevolent enterprises, with increasing interest and vigor. At present, it contributes to the two Boards of the Southern Bapstist Convention, the Board of the General Association, its own home mission, Sunday schools, education of preachers and Orphans Home, besides various local charities.

This Association has devoted none of its time to discussing and answering queries from its churches, and with the bare exception of considering and adopting its own confession of faith,
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or abstract of principles, it has given no time to discussing points in theology. It has not even discussed any feature of church polity, except that, on two occasions, it has decided that it was improper for one church to receive into fellowship a member who had been excluded from another.

The progress of this fraternity, in numbers, during the first 35 years of its existence, was greater than that of any similar body in the State. It began its career, in 1825, with 11 churches, aggregating 949 members. Five years later, it comprised 18 churches with 1,633 members. At this period the Campbellite schism occurred, cutting off five preachers, one church, and about 70 members. But this retarded its progress very little. In 1840, it numbered 33churches, with 3,540 members; in 1850, 54 churches with 6,168 members, and, in 1859, 62 churches with 7,285 members. This is the largest aggregate membership it has yet attained, and, indeed, the largest that any association of white Baptists has ever attained in Kentucky, except Elkhorn, which, in 1861, comprised 29 churches with 7,760 members.

In 1860, just before the beginning of the War, the Association numbered 61 churches, aggregating 7,312 members, of which 1,864 were colored. The latter were gradually severed from the churches during the next decade; so that, in 1870, the body numbered 62 churches with only 5,314 members. In 1880, having dismissed nearly 20 churches to go into other associations, it numbered 46 churches with 4,828 members, and, in 1882, it numbered 49 churches with 4,886 members. There were baptized into its churches, during 56 of the first 57 years of its existence, 18,032 converts.

Reuben Ross was by far the most prominent minister, who was in the constitution of Bethel Association. He was of Scotch extraction, and was born of pious Baptist parents, in Martin Co., N.C., May 9, 1776. His opportunities for acquiring an education were very limited, indeed. He attended school only nine months, his only school books being Dillworth's spelling book and the Psalter. But his mind was strong and active, and he made diligent use of the means within his reach, for its improvement. At the age of 22, he was married to Mildred Yarrell, who soon afterwards sought and obtained hope in
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Christ. Her husband, being passionately fond of dancing, opposed her uniting with the church. However she went forward in discharge of her duty, and soon after her baptism, the Lord found way to his heart. After a long struggle, he obtained hope in Christ, and, at the age of 26 years, was baptized by Luke Ward. Shortly afterwards, he was much impressed with a sense of its being his duty to preach the gospel. Regarding himself unqualified for this work, he engaged in merchandising, with the hope of securing the means of preparing himself for the ministry. In this enterprise he utterly failed. In 1807, he was ordained to the ministry, by Joseph Biggs, Luke Ward and James Ross; and, in May of the same year, started to move to the West. On the 4th of July, he reached Port Royal, in Montgomery county, Tennessee, where he preached his first sermon west of the Mountains, under the branches of a tree. Here he taught school three months, having united with Red River church. In 1808, he settled on Spring creek, in the same county, where he and his wife entered into the constitution of a church which was styled Spring Creek of West Fork. He was immediately chosen pastor of this congregation, and continued to serve it in that capacity, nearly thirty years.

In his early ministry, Dr. Samuel Baker informs us, Mr. Ross preached the doctrine held by the Regular Baptists of North Carolina. He believed in what they termed a limited atonement; that Christ died for the elect only, and that to them alone the gospel was to be preached; not as a means of converting sinners, but merely to comfort and encourage God's chosen and redeemed people. Accordingly, he dwelt chiefly on the consolatory topics of the Bible. His views corresponded with those of most of the preachers and churches in Red River Association, with which he became connected when he moved to the West. But his active mind soon led him to change his doctrinal views, and he began to preach the gospel to sinners, warning all to repent and believe on the Lord Jesus Christ. At this time he had become the most popular and influential preacher in the Association. Many church members and several preachers received what others regarded his heretical doctrine, and it began to be preached by others, as well as by himself. This led to much disputing and dissatisfaction among the churches, and especially among the older preachers.
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As early as 1812, Mr. Ross preached the introductory sermon before the Association, and, at the same meeting, was elected Moderator of that body, a position which he filled on eight subsequent occasions. "In 1823," says Dr. Baker, "certain leading spirits attempted to secure from the Association, a condemnation of the teachings of Elder Ross." This object was defeated, and a peaceable division of the Association was afterwards agreed upon. The constitution of Bethel Association was the result. Mr. Ross was chosen Moderator of this body, at the time of its organization, in 1825, and continued to fill that office, till 1851, when the infirmities of age prompted him to resign. We again quote from Dr. Baker's address on the Life and Times of Reuben Ross: "The wide influence which he secured by his great powers of expounding the Scriptures seemed like a magic charm. As a preacher, he was devout, earnest and solemn. His enunciation was peculiarly dignified, and his expositions, his expostulations, his entreaties and his appeals were framed after the best models of those good men who, in primitive times, declared in our own tongue, the wonderful work of God. With an untiring hand, for almost 40 years, he bore the ark of God in the darkened corners of Logan, Todd and Christian counties in Kentucky, and Robertson, Montgomery and Stewart counties in Tennessee; and wherever the ark rested there was a blessing from the Lord."

Mr. Ross continued to labor according to his strength, to a ripe old age. In 1859, Bethel Association ordered his portrait painted, and a copy of it placed in each of Bethel College and Bethel Female College. The work was accomplished, and, before the next meeting of the Association, the venerable solider of the cross was called to his final reward. The esteem in which he was held may be inferred from the following extract from the minutes of Bethel Association of 1860:

"At this time it was announced that the life-size photograph portrait of Elder Reuben Ross, deceased, ordered by last Association, and to be placed in Bethel College, had been reserved. It was brought in and placed on a table in front of the audience, with an open Bible before it. No circumstance ever occurred that produced such a thrilling sensation in Bethel Association. The Association was bathed in tears as they gazed
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on the life-like portrait and were so vividly reminded of the faithful labors and toils of him who was indeed the father of the Association. . . . Truly the sobs and tears of the messengers testified that the righteous are held in everlasting remembrance."

The one fault manifest in this good and great man, as a public teacher, was his failure to enforce the peculiar principles of his denomination. When the teachings of Alexander Campbell made their first inroads in Bethel Association, causing so much distress and confusion among the churches, he was silent in regard to the pernicious heresy, and left it to men of much less influence to guard the churches against its baleful effects. A consequence of this weakness was that many of his posterity became Campbellites, or joined other denominations than that of their eminent and godly ancestor.

Sugg Fort was in the constitution of Bethel Association, and was manifestly prominent among the ministers of that fraternity. Unfortunately no account of the particulars of his life and labors has been transmitted to us. He was among the pioneers of Red River Association, and his membership was at Red River, the oldest church in that fraternity. He was clerk of that body from 1821 to 1825, and filled the same office in Bethel Association from its constitution till 1828. After this his name does not appear on any accessible record. According to tradition he was a minister of high standing, and a man of unblemished Christian character.

William C. Warfield, a son of Walter Warfield, M.D., was born in Lexington, Ky., about 1796. He gave early indications of extraordinary mental powers, and his father spared no pains in furnishing him the means of procuring a thorough education. After finishing his academic course, he entered Transylvania University, where he remained six years, graduating both in letters and the law. Meanwhile, he had adopted the popular infidelity of the period, and was exceedingly hardened in sin. Soon after leaving the university, he stabbed a young man of the name of Bradford, in the theater at Lexington. The wound was at first thought to be mortal, and young Warfield immediately fled. His flight was so precipitate that he had formed no purpose as to where he would go. Riding all night and till late in the afternoon of the next day, he arrived at Bardstown. Here he stopped and presently made an arrangement to
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read law in the office of the distinguished judge John Rowan. He remained in concealment until he ascertained that young Bradford had recovered from his wound. About this time, in 1817, Jeremiah Vardeman visited Bardstown, andpreached several days. Young Warfield attended the meetings, and, hardened in sin as he was, the Holy Spirit found way to his heart. His infidelity yielded to a more powerful conviction, and after a fearful protracted struggle with the powers of darkness, he rejoiced in the faith of the gospel. His father, who was an Episcopalians, made no objection to his uniting with the Baptist church, and he was immersed by Mr. Vardeman. Being impressed that it was his duty to preach the gospel, he laid aside his law books, and applied himself to the study of the Bible. Returning to Lexington, he was welcomed by Dr. James Fishback, who owned one of the most extensive theological libraries in the State. To the free use of this treasure, young Warfield was cordially invited. After reading a short time he was licensed to preach, and, soon afterward, was ordained to the full work of the ministry. Shortly after his ordination, he entered Princeton Theological Seminary, in New Jersey, where he spent two years. While here, he frequently visited one or more Baptist churches near by, in company with Howard Malcom, the only other Baptist student in the Seminary, at that time, and subsequently the distinguished President of Georgetown College. On his return from Princeton, he spent a few months in Lexington, and then located with New Providence church, in Christian county. This church belonged to Red River Association, and Mr. Warfield was connected with that fraternity until the formation of Bethel Association, in 1825. After entering into the constitution of the latter fraternity, he became associated with Mt. Zion church in Todd county, of which he remained a member until his death. When the teachings of Alexander Campbell first began to agitate the churches of Bethel Association, most of the preachers of that fraternity were unable to understand them. For a time the ministers of the body did not attempt to oppose them, most probably because they did not know what to oppose. Mr. Warfield was the first to see through the ambiguity of Mr. Campbell's language, and discover his real sentiments. At once he set about exposing the dangerous system.
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"In divesting those sentiments of the specious and plausible garb in which Mr. Campbell presented them," says Dr. Pendleton, "Bro. Warfield evinced a profound knowledge of biblical truth, and displayed argumentative powers of a superior order. Through his instrumentality, the saints were established in the doctrines of the gospel, and from his hand Campbellism received a blow from which it has not yet recovered." The ways of God are mysterious to us. This eminently useful and much beloved minister had not reached the meridian of life when the Master called him away from a field white unto the harvest to rest beneath the branches of the tree of life. He died of a virulent fever, November 3, 1835.

John S. Wilson was one of the most beloved, zealous and successful preachers that have lived in Kentucky. He was born in Franklin county, Ky., July 13, 1795. While yet an infant he was taken to Adair county, where he was raised up near Columbia. Under the instruction of a pious mother, he was accustomed to "say his prayers," morning and evening, from his eighth to his fifteenth year. At the latter period, "religious duty," as he termed it, became unendurable, and he abandoned his prayers. During the next two years he indulged in sin, without the fear of God before his eyes. At about the age of 17 years, he was awakened to a sense of his guilty distance from God. After some time, he found peace in Jesus, and was baptized for the fellowship of Gilead church, by that eminent servant of Christ, Isaac Hodgen.

In the 23d year of his age, he was married to Martha, daughter of John Waggener of Adair county. This marriage proved a most congenial one, and doubtless added much to the subsequent usefulness, as well as happiness of the godly husband. Soon after his marriage, he moved to Todd county and settled at Elkton. Up to this period he had given no indications of either inclination or capacity to enter the ministry. But in his secret soul, the humble, timid Christian longed for the salvation of his neighbors, and when he could no longer refrain from uttering words of exhortation, in the prayer meeting, his brethren were astonished and delighted at the fervor and power of his address. Soon after this, about the year 1824, after having exercised a short time as a licensed preachers he was solemnly set apart to the ministry, and immediately
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called to the care of Lebanon church, in Todd county. This zeal and earnestness at once attracted., general attention, and large crowds of people of all classes waited on his ministry. A revival attended his early labors at Lebanon, and many were added to the church. Meanwhile, he gathered a church in Elkton, which was constituted of 16 persons, including himself and his wife, October 15, 1825. He was immediately elected pastor of the young church, and served it with great acceptance about seven years. He was also called to the care of West Union church, in Christian county, where he was equally acceptable, and abundantly successful. But he did not confine his efforts to his pastoral charges. His labors were abundant in all that region of the State, and were blessed in bringing many souls to the Lord. In the midst of these zealous and successful labors, he gave a due proportion of his time to exposing the insidious errors of Campbellism, which was then tending to blight the spirituality of the churches wherever it was introduced.

In 1833, he accepted an agency for the American Bible Society. In performing the duties of this office, in which he was not very successful, in consequence of the fearful prevalence of cholera during that year, he became acquainted with the church in Louisville, and was called to its pastoral care. During his brief connection with this church, he devoted much of his time to preaching in the surrounding villages. In 1834 a most remarkable revival commenced Lender his preaching, in Shelbyville, and extended with mighty power, in all directions, until it was estimated that 1,200 people were converted as a result. At Shelbyville, during that and the next year, 142 were baptized; at Bethel, 122; at Buck Creek, 86; at Salem, 86; at Taylorville, 88; at Simpsonville, 118; and within the bounds of Long Run Association, 1,320. The next year, Mr. Wilson held a meeting at Newcastle, which resulted in 136 baptisms, at that place. He also labored in revivals at Ballardsville in Oldham county, Bloomfield in Nelson, and Elizabethtown in Hardin. On his way homeward from Elizabethtown, after having labored 50 days in revivals, he was taken sick, and was compelled to stop at Shepherdsville. From thence he was conveyed to his home in Louisville, where he found his mother a corpse, in the house. The brief period of his illness was to him a time of the most exhalted joy. He said to his wife:
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"You have noticed that I have not asked any of the brethren to pray for me." On her inquiring the reason of this, he replied: "Why, I should not know what petition could be offered on my behalf. God has done all for me that I wish him to do. He has satisfied every desire of my heart. He himself is all my salvation and all my desire. I acquiesce in the divine will, having none of my own."

Soon after this, on the 28th of August, 1835, he left the sick chamber for the mansions above with expressions of most perfect present joy, and the most thrilling anticipations of the glory that awaited him.

Isaiah H. Boone was connected with Bethel Association at its first session, and was active in its councils, about five years. His grand father, Squire Boone, was a brother of the famous Daniel Boone, the first explorer of Kentucky, and was a Baptist preacher. His father whose name also was Squire, was likewise a Baptist preacher, and was the minister of Boggs Fork church in Fayette county. Thomas Boone, a brother of Isaiah, was long the much beloved pastor of Lulbegrud church in Montgomery county, Ky., and other congregations in that vicinity.

Isaiah H. Boone was probably born in Madison county, some years previous to the beginning of the present century; but was raised on a farm in Fayette county. He was probably set apart to the ministry at Boggs Fork; but this is not certain. As early as 1825, he was an ordained preacher in Lebanon church, in Todd county, and with it became a member of Bethel Association, the same year. The next year he became a member of Mt. Zion church in the same county, He appears to have possessed fair preaching talent, and might have attained to considerable usefulness. But he was early carried away with the teachings of Alexander Campbell, and was cut off from the Baptists, in 1830.

William Tandy was converted to Christ under the ministry of Jesse Brooks, at a place in Christian county, called Salubria Spring, in 1813. He, with anumber of others, was baptized by Mr. Brooks for the fellowship of old West Fork church, now extinct. The next year, he, with 14 others, entered into the constitution of "an arm" of West Fork church, at Salubria Spring. This "arm" was recognized as an independent
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organization, in 1816, and took the name of Bethel church. Mr. Tandy was licensed to exercise his gift, soon after the constitution of "the arm," and was ordained to the ministry, by Reuben Ross and Leonard Page, in July, 1816. The following year, he succeeded Jesse Brooks in the pastoral charge of Bethel church. To this congregation he ministered as long as his strength would permit; and, after his health became so feeble that he was unable to preach, the church retained him in the pastoral office, supplying itself with the ministrations of other preachers, till the Lord called their beloved shepherd home. He passed to his final reward in 1838.

Mr. Tandy was not regarded an extraordinary preacher. But his excellent practical judgment, his fine public spirit, and his undoubted piety, gave him a high position in the confidence and affection of his brethren. He was the first minister whose death was publicly noticed by the General Association, of which he was a warm and liberal supporter, as he had been of the Kentucky Baptist Convention. He was also the first preacher whose death was publicly noticed by the Bethel Association, of which he was a useful and honored member.

Robert Rutherford was a native of Scotland, where he grew up to manhood, made his peace with God, and was inducted into the christian ministry. He emigrated to the United States, and, making his way to Kentucky, located with Mt. Zion church in Todd county, about the time Bethel Association was constituted. Never having married, he was able, even at that period, to devote most of his time to the active duties of the ministry. Being an educated man and a devout student of the Bible, he was a very instructive, as well as an edifying preacher. He was located in Hopkinsville, in 1833, but returned to Mt. Zion, in 1836, and remained there until the Lord called him home. He died, about the year 1841. Universal tradition agrees with a contemporary who writes of Mr. Rutherford, in 1830, to the following purport: "In his address, he is plain and affable, and in private intercourse, is somewhat reserved and diffident. He insults no man's opinions, defames no man's character, and avoids discord as a deadly poison. Peace and quietude seem to be his native elements. He is a close student of the Bible. In his public discourses, he is lucid and interesting, His Scotch brogue, and the clear manner in which
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he illustrates his subject, attract and fix the attention of his audience as by a charm. As to his deportment, I can say: 'Behold an Israelite indeed in whom there is no guile.'"

William Brisendine was a plain, pious preacher of moderate gifts. He was an ordained minister in the church at Elkton, in Todd county, as early as 1826. Afterwards he was associated with Armageddon church. He was called to his reward, not far from 1850. Other particulars of his life are not known to the author.

Richard W. Nixon was born in Hanover county, N.C., May 3, 1799. In that State, he grew up to manhood, finishing his education at West Point Military Academy. In 1821, he emigrated to Tennessee, where he married Sarah C., daughter of Needham Whitfield, and settled in Haywood county. Here he engaged in merchandising, several years. In 1827, he moved to Montgomery county, Tenn. Here he professed religion, and was baptized by Reuben Ross, into the fellowship of Spring Creek church, in August, 1828. In 1830, he was licensed to preach, and, in April of the next year, was ordained to the ministry, by Reuben Ross and Robert Rutherford. He was afterwards pastor of Spring Creek and other churches. In 1841, he was appointed missionary by the executive Board of Bethel Association, to labor within the bounds of that fraternity. In this position, he labored three years, at different times, with remarkable success. At the end of the first year, he reported that he had traveled 3,023 miles, preached 268 sermons and witnessed 379 conversions. He continued his labors as pastor and missionary, within the bounds of this fraternity, till 1857, when he moved to Lauderdale county, Tenn. In view of this removal, the Association, "Resolved, That in the removal of Bro. Nixon, this Association has lost one of its most useful and efficient ministers." And, "That we most heartily commend him to the christian confidence and affection of those with whom his lot has been cast." In his new field, he was laborious and successful. He was pastor, at different times, of the churches at Society Hill, Ripley, Salem, Pleasant Plains, and Fulton. He spent the last year of his life, laboring as missionary under the appointment of the West Tennessee Baptist Convention. He died of pneumonia, Mar. 4, 1871.
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Thomas Watts was a native of Virginia, and was born, about 1786. He moved west, in 1810, settling first in Sumner county, Tenn., but afterwards locating in Todd county, Ky. Here he was led to Christ, and united with Mt. Zion church, in 1829. Although about 43 years of age, he began to exhort his neighbors to turn to the Lord, soon after his conversion. In 1830, he was ordained to the ministry. He seems to have possessed but small gifts; but he was pious and faithful, and the influence he exerted, if not extensive, was salutary. In 1842, he moved to Christian county, and united with Bethel church. He remained here only four years, when he moved to Robertson co., Tenn., and joined Spring Creek church. Here he resided till May 13, 1860, when God took him to himself. Both the church and the Association to which he belonged passed resolutions, expressive of his piety, faithfulness and usefulness.

William Warder was the third son of Joseph and Esther Warder, and was born in Fauquier Co., Va., Jan. 8, 1786. He was brought up on his father’s farm, and received a limited knowledge of the primary branches of an English education. In his 19th year, he came with his brother John to Barren county Ky. In the following year, he sought and obtained hope in Christ. He was not confident in the evidence of his conversion, and delayed his baptism. After remaining in the new country, about two years, he went back to Virginia, whence he immediately returned with his father's family, and they all settled about six miles east of the present site of Glasgow, in Barren county, in 1807. In April of that year, William and his brother Walter were baptized on the same day, into the fellowship of Dripping Spring church, by Robert Stockton. Walter began to preach almost immediately; but William, naturally more timid, held back for a time. Meanwhile, he improved his education very much by teaching school and applying himself to close study.

In 1809, he was licensed to preach by the church at Mt. Pisgah, in Barren county, into the constitution of which he had recently entered. His improvement in preaching was very rapid, and, on the 24th of March, 1811, he was ordained to the ministry, by Jacob Lock, Ralph Petty and Zechariah Emerson. For about eight years after his ordination, he devoted himself to the work of an evangelist, with great zeal and activity.
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In company with, first one and then another, of Hodgen, Vardeman, Warfield, R. T. Anderson, Philip Fall and others, he traveled and preached almost incessantly, from Franklin, Tennessee, to Maysville, Ky. There were no pratracted meetings in those days. "A three days meeting," was sometimes held; but Mr. Warder and his colaborers usually preached one or two sermons at a place, and then went on to the next appointment. He preached in school houses, meeting houses, court houses and, in warm weather, at "stages" erected in the woods, but still oftener, in the cabins of the settlers. He preached at all the principal towns in Kentucky and Middle Tennessee. In going from one of these to another, he would preach almost every day and night. Immense crowds often attended on his preaching, and great numbers were brought tremblingly to the cross of Christ. After his brother Walter located at Mayslick, the strong and tender affection existing between these brothers induced William to visit him two or three times a year, when they would spend some weeks preaching together. Sometimes they would cross the river, and make a tour into the State of Ohio. When the time came for William to return home, Walter would travel some distance with him, and then take an affectionate leave.

In 1817, William Warder and Isaac Hodgen were sent as messengers from the Kentucky Missionary Society, to the Baptist Triennial Convention, in Philadelphia. They made the journey on horse-back, in order that they might preach on the way. The distance was more than a thousand miles. But so much were these godly men in love with the cross, that the journey, during which they preached almost every night, seemed to them as nothing. From the Convention, they returned through Virginia. The effect of their preaching at Waller's, an old church in Spottsylvania county, was truly wonderful. The church was in so lifeless and hopeless a condition, that Absalom Waller, the pastor, was looking for a new field of labor. They preached five or six sermons. A most wonderful revival began. A few months afterwards, Mr. Waller published a pamphlet, titled Drops of Mercy from a Bright Cloud, in which he stated that near six hundred had professed to obtain pardon of sin, since the visit of Warder and Hodgen.
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In 1818, Mr. Warder visited Russellville to preach a funeral sermon in commemoration of Mrs. Grubbs. After this, he made frequent visits to that portion of the State, sometimes extending his tours as far as Hopkinsville, Clarksville, Nashville and even farther. In February, 1819, he induced Isaac Hodgen to go with him on a tour to the "lower counties." An extensive revival followed their labors. Twenty-seven persons were baptized at Russellville. During the same year, he and Vardeman made a tour through these counties, and, again, their labors were successful at Russellville, as they were also at other points.

In the fall of 1819, Mr. Warder and several other gentlemen made an excursion to the north-western territory, and spent several weeks in the neighborhood of Council Bluff and other points on the frontier. They made the journey on horseback, and Mr. Warder preached at St. Louis and other points, where he could collect a congregation. He describes St. Louis as "a flourishing, business town of about 5,000 inhabitants," the beauty of which was much marred "by the narrowness of the streets in the centre of the town."

After his return from the north-west, Mr. Warder continued his labors as an itinerant, with his accustomed activity and success. On the 8th of January, 1821, he made the following entry in his diary: "To-day, I am 35 years old -- halfway to three score years and ten. In my 20th year, I obtained a hope of religion, in the month of July. . . . The most of my time has been spent in the ministry, and I have reason to hope my labors have not been altogether in vain. Indeed, the Lord has blessed me altogether beyond my most sanguine expectations, and has laid me under infinite obligations to bless and adore him. I grieve and am ashamed, when I look back and see the great lack of fervent piety and zeal, which marks the most of my life. Indeed, when recollection causes the whole scene to pass before me, Ifind much to lament, and little to rejoice in, at least, so far as it relates to myself; and were it left to my choice to recall it and pass over the same scenes again, I feel as though there would be no hesitancy in letting it pass."

In March, 1820, he was called to the pastoral care of Russellville church, and soon afterwards accepted like calls to the
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churches at Glasgow and Bowling Green. The field of his labors now became, of necessity, more circumscribed; but he was none the less zealous, earnest and laborious. He preached from house to house within the bounds of his pastoral charges, and still made many tours outside of his pastoral field. On the 25th of December, 1821, he was married to Margaret A., daughter of Charles Morehead of Logan county, and sister to the late Governor Charles S. Morehead. The day after his marriage, he wrote in his diary: -- "I have entered the married estate under the banner of judgment and unhesitating affection, and feel all the sweet contentment arising from an assurance of meeting the approbation of our Creator, and securing my happiness."

He now settled near Russellville, where he continued to devote himself to his holy calling. Everything appeared to move on smoothly in his charges, until 1823, when an ominous cloud hung over the church at Russellville. William I. Morton, a respectable lawyer of the town, had recently joined the church. Having been raised a Pedobaptist, he believed in open communion, and had privately disseminated his sentiments among the brethren. Having led some of the members to embrace his views, a private caucus was held, and it was determined to present a resolution to the church, directing a petition to be sent to Red River Association, asking that body to endorse the practice of open communion. Mr. Warder discovered the plot in time to prevent its success. The resolution was presented to the church, but after a spirited debate, chiefly between Mr. Morton and the pastor, the vote was taken, as to whether the resolution should lie over till next meeting. The church refused to consider it further, by so large a majority, that it was never again brought up. In the spring of 1828, Mr. Warder moved to Nashville, Tenn., and engaged with Philip S. Fall, in teaching school. But he was unhappy in this position, and, after remaining there one year, returned to his farm near Russellville. He was soon called to the care of the churches at Bowling Green, Russellville and Union. With these churches, he continued to labor during the remainder of his earthly pilgrimage.

The influence of Mr. Warder, in Red River Association, was extensive and very salutary. He was poorly educated in his youth, but having a strong native intellect, and applying himself to study with great zeal, he became a good general
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scholar. He was a man of large views and practical enterprise, and devoted himself earnestly to the good of his race. When he came into theterritory of Red River Association, in 1818, he found the Baptists of that region strongly Antinomian, and opposed to all benevolent enterprises. He immediately lent his energies to correcting these evils. His first move, after preaching among the people himself, was to introduce to the churches, those noble and enterprising men of God, Warfield, Hodgen, Vardeman and Walter Warder. The effect was immediate and powerful. The contrast between the preaching of those men, and the stupid, ignorant harangues of the Antinomian preachers, was so striking that the more intelligent brethren began to discuss the matter, and the need of a better educated ministry was soon felt. The Antinomian preachers claimed that every word they uttered from the pulpit was dictated by the Holy spirit. They themselves, and many of their hearers believed this. Of course this superceded the need of study, on the part of the preachers. But many of the more enlightened brethren, began to doubt God's being the author of their silly sermons; and their doubts soon ripened into a positive rejection of the claim. The Association had been somewhat divided on these subjects, but the breach now widened rapidly. Ross, Fort, Wilson, Warfield, Warder and a few others advocated the education and support of the ministry, and the cause of missions, while a larger party opposed them with great vehemence. Meanwhile, Warder organized an "Educating Society," with a view to educating young preachers. All these things widened the breach; but a reformation was necessary, even if it cost a revolution. The time was rapidly approaching when a separation must take place. At a meeting of Red River Association, Mr. Warder preached a sermon on the subject of missions, to an immense audience. In his introduction, he said: "This subject demands a sacrifice, and I may as well be the victim as any one else." In 1825, a portion of the missionary party separated themselves from Red River, and formed Bethel Association. Mr. Warder and his charges chose to remain in the old fraternity, with the hope of reforming it. But a few years proved the fruitlessness of the effort, and they united with Bethel Association.
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About 1830, Mr. Warder was thrown from a gig, and his ankle was so crushed that he had to preach, sitting on a chair, the remainder of his life. He died of a congestive chill, August 9, 1836. He left one son, Joseph W. Warder, who is now widely known in Kentucky, as an able, eloquent and devoted minister of the gospel.

Robert T. Anderson, son of John Anderson, a prominent and influential Baptist, was born in Carolina county, Va., April 9, 1792. He finished his education in the classical school of Rev. Mr. Nelson. At the age of 23 years, he was married to his cousin, Patsy Lowry, and, three years later, emigrated to Green county, Ky. In 1851, he professed religion, and was baptized by William Warder. In 1828, he moved to Adair county, and united with Mt. Gilead church, where he was soon afterwards set apart to the ministry. In 1830, helocated in Russellville as a school teacher, which occupation he followed most of his life. In this profession he was preeminent, and was of incalculable benefit to the Baptists of Bethel Association, as well as others. He had a department for deaf mutes in his school, and succeeded in teaching some of this unfortunate class to articulate with more or less distinctness. He conducted schools at several different points within the bounds of Bethel Association, and usually preached to churches near his residence. His first pastorate was that of Pleasant Grove church, in Logan county, to which he was called in 1830. In 1832, he was called to the care of Hopewell church, in Robertson county, Tenn., and to that of Keysburg, in Logan county, in 1834. He served these churches till 1838, when he accepted a call to the church at Hopkinsville, to which town he moved, in 1840, and took the additional charges of Olivet and West Union churches. After a few years, he resigned the care of Hopkinsville church, and accepted that of Salem. During his ministerial labors in Christian and Caldwell counties, which continued several years, he gathered Locust Grove and Pleasant Grove churches, to both of which he ministered for some time, and was pastor of the latter at the time of his death. In the winter of 1854, this church, which is in Caldwell county, enjoyed an extensive revival. Mr. Anderson labored excessively during the inclement season, by which he contracted a severe cold. He continued to suffer from this cause several weeks, when he was attacked
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in the right arm with neuralgia. This disease gradually moved to his head, and, locating over his right eye, ultimated in apoplexy, of which he died, June 8, 1854.

Mr. Anderson was not a brilliant genius, but a man of strong mind, clear judgment and superior culture. He was an able, earnest preacher, was very industrious in his holy calling, and his labors were crowned with success. In addition to his pastoral services, he is said to have performed more labor among the destitute than any other preacher in Bethel Association, in his day.

S. S. Mallory was born in North Carolina, February 13, 1801. He was brought by his parents to Robertson county, Tennessee, while he was yet a child. Here he grew up to manhood, and spent the remainder of a long and useful life. During the revival of 1827, he professed conversion and joined Little West Fork church. After serving this church as both deacon and clerk, several years, he was licensed to preach, in November, 1839, and, in February, 1841, was ordained to the ministry, by Reuben Ross, Robert Rutherford, Thomas Watts, and R.W. Nixon. His labors were confined chiefly to the territory of Bethel Association, and his principal pastoral charges were Cross Creek and Big Rock churches. Without any especially brilliant gift, he was regarded an instructive preacher. "No man in the county, perhaps," says a cotemporary, "was better known or more beloved; a purer man did not live,and none have died surer of the rich reward in store for the faithful." He died of pneumonia, in Clarksville, Tennessee, February 10, 1883.

Williams Baldry was born in Logan county, Ky., March 24, 1804. On arriving at manhood, he was married to Jane Hampton, August 26, 1826. This marriage was blessed with nine children, seven of whom survived their father, and were all church members. Mr. Baldry professed religion, at about the age of 30, and was baptized by Robert T. Anderson, into the fellowship of Hopewell church, in Robertson county, Tenn. Here he was ordained to the ministry in July, 1838, by Robert T. Anderson and O. H. Morrow. He soon entered the pastoral office, and in that capacity, served the churches at Hopewell, Keysburg, Allensville, Bethesda, Blue Spring and Battle Creek. He also labored as missionary of Bethel
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Association, for a short time. In 1849, he moved to Ballard county, Kentucky. Here he was pastor of the churches at Mt. Zion, Newton's Creek, Lovelaceville, and Salem. After laboring faithfully, and with a good degree of success, in the ministry, about 45 years, he fell asleep in Jesus, February 5, 1883.

Elisha Vaughan. Of this faithful servant of Christ, Elder J. F. Hardwick writes: "From the best information I can gather, he was born in Pittsylvania county, Va., December 23, 1797, and was of Welsh descent, direct from the Earl of Tisburn. He was converted in the 18th year of his age, under the preaching of Elijah Maddox, of Tennessee, who also baptized him. A short time after his baptism, he commenced the work of an evangelist, in which he continued four years. After this he took the pastoral care of churches in Sumner county. Having served these churches successfully for four years, he resigned and moved to Wilson county. Here he spent several years, during which time he was married to Kittie Moore." About 1837, he moved to Christian county, Ky., where he spent the remainder of his life.

Mr. Vaughan was not a man of brilliant talents, but he possessed some good gifts, which were used with diligence and success. In his public addresses, he was mild, persuasive and affectionate. In the social circle, he devoted his fine colloquial powers to the cause of religion, and he seldom failed to reach the heart of the sinner with whom he conversed. It is doubtful whether he accomplished most for his Master's cause, in the pulpit, or in his private intercourse with men. During his ministry, he baptized over 2,000 persons - a work which few ministers accomplish, although a man of extraordinary gifts, has occasionally baptized many more. He died in calm and peaceful triumph, at his home in Christian county, Jan, 21, 1879, in the 83d year of his age.

Robert W. January was called to the ministry, and labored a short time with zeal and success, within the limits of Bethel Association. He was born in Fayette county, Ky., in 1798. At about the age of twenty-one years, he was married to Harriet Postlewait, in Lexington. He made a profession of religion, in early life, and united with the Cumberland Presbyterian church. By this community, he was set apart to the
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ministry, and labored under its auspices a number of years. About the year 1838, his views on the subject of Baptism underwent a change, and he united with the Baptist church at Union, in Logan county. Here he was ordained to the ministry, the same year, by James Lamb and Dudley Robinson. He was appointed missionary within the bounds of Bethel Association, in 1840, and was the first who filled that position, under the appointment of a local board. He labored in that capacity a little less than six months, and reported to the board, that he had ridden 1,833 miles, preached 196 sermons, delivered seventy one exhortations and six temperance lectures, organized six temperance societies, aided in constituting two churches and witnessed 160 conversions -- surely he must have wasted but little time.

In 1841, he moved to Davidson county, Tenn., and, two years later, to the adjoining county of Rutherford. "For the first ten years after Elder January removed to Tennessee," says Dr. Hillsman, in Borum's Sketches, "he was one of the most active, zealous, and useful ministers in Concord Association, both as an evangelist and a pastor." During this period he claimed to have discovered a remedy for cancer, and commenced treating patients for that direful disease. In this practice he gained considerable notoriety. But his medical practice interfered with his ministry, and, about the year 1856, he desisted from preaching altogether. In 1863, he moved to Gibson county, Tenn., where he died, May 19, 1866.

William I. Morton was born in Virginia, about the year 1792. After obtaining a fair English education, by his own exertions, he emigrated to Kentucky, and located in Russellville as a lawyer. In 1818, he was elected to the Legislature, from Logan county, and was returned to an extra session of that body, in 1822. Having been seriously impressed on the subject of religion for some time previous to his second election, he obtained hope in Christ while at the State Capital. He hesitated for a time as to what denomination he would unite with. But on his return from Frankfort, he found William Warder and Jeremiah Vardeman holding a meeting at Russellville, and, a few days afterwards, united with the Baptist church. From the time of his conversion, he was impressed with a sense of duty to preach the gospel. But having a growing family to support, he
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felt the need of continuing the practice of law. He consented, however, to accept the deaconship, and was an active and liberal officer. Having been raised under Pedobaptist influence, he was, for a time, in favor of open communion, and, at one period, gave his pastor considerabletrouble by introducing the subject in the church, and engaging several members in advocating his views. This error in faith, however, passed away with his youth, and he became a consistent Baptist. After a long struggle with his conscience, he yielded to his convictions of duty, and submitted to ordination, in 1848. He was immediately called to the pastoral care of Friendship church, located some twelve miles east of Russellville, to which congregation he ministered with acceptance, several years. He was also efficient as the missionary of Bethel Association, some years, and being a man of great energy, he labored with so much zeal and activity that his health was so impaired as to disqualify him for preaching. He then accepted the judgeship of Logan county, as a means of supporting his family. This position he filled to the time of his death, which occurred, from inflammation of the stomach and bowels, March 16, 1860.

W. D. Pannell was born in Todd county, Ky., in 1823. At the age of 20 years, he obtained hope in Christ, and was ordained to the ministry, in 1845. He was a good, faithful preacher of moderate ability, and labored some 27 years, in Todd, Muhlenberg and Hopkins counties. He lived above reproach, and his influence was consecrated to the cause of Christ. He was called to his final reward, Apr. 1, 1872.

Shandy A. Holland. Few men have been more warmly loved while living, or sincerely lamented when dead, than this meek and consecrated servant of Christ. He was born in Warren Co., Ky., Dec. 10. 1815. At the age of 23 years, he professed faith in Christ, and was baptized into the fellowship of Salem church, in Christian county, by Robert Rutherford. Of this church he remained a member, except during one brief interval, until his death. After serving his church as deacon, for a short time, he was licensed to preach, in November, 1845 This involved him in great anxiety. Feeling that he had no right to decline this duty, imposed by his church, and yet deeming himself unqualified to discharge it, he would often spend a whole night in weeping and pleading with God for direction
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and assistance. But the church was constantly more strongly convinced that he was called of God to preach the gospel. On the 3rd of August, 1847, he was ordained to the full work of the ministry, by Reuben Ross, Samuel Baker, Robert Williams, R. T. Anderson, Elisha Vaughan and R. W. Nixon. The pastoral charges to which he was called, were the churches at Concord and South Union, in Christian county, Mt. Zion in Todd county, and Graysville. These relations were pleasant to the pastor, and profitable to the churches. In addition to his pastoral labors, Mr. Holland devoted much time to preaching, gratuitously, to the destitute. As he was eminently prosperous in his secular business, he devoted whatever he received for his ministerial labors, to objects of christian benevolence. He was a business man of superior capacity, and without seeming to neglect his ministerial duties, he acquired an amplefortune. But his worldly possessions and his business talents were consecrated to the cause of Christ. He was active in all the benevolent enterprises of his association, and contributed liberally to their support. He finished his earthly course, June 13, 1872.

James Lamb is among the oldest living ministers of Bethel Association. He was born of Baptist parents, in Madison Co., Ky., Dec. 1, 1809. From the age of four years, he was raised on a farm in Warren county, receiving only a very limited common school education. After he had arrived at manhood, and for a time after his marriage, he attended a grammar school at Russellville, conducted by John C. French. In 1829, he obtained hope in Christ, while on a visit in Illinois. On his return, he joined a small church near South Union, in Logan county, and was baptized by Richard Shackleford. This organization soon dissolved, and he united with Liberty church, then under the care of Philip Warden. Here he was licensed to preach, about 1832, and ordained, in May, 1835, by D. L. Mansfield, Robert Rutherford, L. H. Milikin, Reuben Ross, W. C. Warfield and Robert Williams. He soon afterwards accepted a call to Union church in Logan county, to which he also gave his membership. To this congregation he ministered 20 years. He was pastor at Keysburg, 16 years; at Allensville, 20 years; at Elkton, 2 years; at Dripping Spring (which he gathered), 5 years; at Mt. Pleasant, 10 years; at Antioch, 4
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years, at Clear Fork, 4 years; at Whippoorwill, 7 years; and at Edgars Creek, several years. He served as missionary of Bethel Association, two years, and gave a portion of his time to that work, afterwards. He also gathered Tabor church, in Todd county. The reader will see that Mr. Lamb's has been a busy life, in the cause of his Master. In early life, he was married to Miss. Warder, a niece of Elders William and Walter Warder, who is still living, and who has proved herself every way worthy of that illustrious name.

W. B. Walker, S. P. Forgy, J. U. Spurlin, J. B. Evans, G. W. Featherstone, F. C. Plaster, L. J. Crutcher and a number of other living ministers of this fraternity, besides a number who have gone to their reward, deserve notice in this place. But the author is compelled to omit fuller mention, for want of definite information.

Anthony New was a prominent member of Red River, and, afterwards, of Bethel Association. He was one of the most distinguished citizens of Southern Kentucky, and served three terms in the U.S. Congress, between 181 1 and 1823. He was a very early settler in what is now Todd county, and was a member of West Fork of Red River church. In 1810, he was chosen Moderator of Red River Association, and served in that capacity on at least five subsequent occasions. After the constitution of Elkton church, he heldmembership in that organization, and represented it in Bethel Association. The author has not ascertained the time of his death.

John Price Campbell was born in Orange county, Va., in 1789. He received a good education for the times, and, in 1815, emigrated to Kentucky, and settled in Christian county. He devoted himself to farming, dealing in agricultural products -- especially tobacco -- and to the duties of various offices of public trust. In 1826, he was sent to the Kentucky Legislature, and, in 1855, represented his district in the U.S. Congress. He was also President of the Branch Bank of Kentucky at Hopkinsville, about 20 years. He was an excellent business man, and accumulated a fine estate. He was first sent as a messenger from Hopkinsville church to Bethel Association, in 1840. During that session, he offered the first resolution in favor of employing a missionary within the bounds of the Association. The resolution was adopted, a missionary was employed, and the
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results were most happy. From this period till his death, he was a wise and liberal supporter of missions, education, and other benevolent schemes of his church and Association. He died, in 1867.

John Pendleton emigrated from Spottsylvania county, Virginia, to Christian county, Kentucky, in 1812. He entered in to the constitution of Bethel church, which he served long, both as clerk and deacon. He was a man of enlarged views, and was far in advance of the Baptists in Red River Association, of which he was a member about twelve years. He entered with his church into the constitution of Bethel Association, and was a very prominent member of that body, during what may be called its formative period, serving it as clerk, a number of years. Being an earnest and enlightened advocate of missions and the support of the ministry, he contributed no small part in giving direction to the counsels of Bethel Association, in these matters. As a citizen, he occupied a prominent position in his county, which honored him with a seat in the State Legislature, in 1833. He died, in 1833. Among his children, were the distinguished J. M. Pendleton, D.D., William H. Pendleton, long a deacon of the church at Hopkinsville, and a most valuable church member, and Cyrus N. Pendleton, a prominent lawyer and politician of Christian county, and a member of Bethel church.

Many other distinguished citizens were early members of this fraternity, and, indeed, it has embraced many of the most influential men in its territory, from its constitution, to the present time.

South Concord Association
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This fraternity is located in Wayne and some of the adjoining counties. It was constituted of 11 churches, at Big Sinking meeting house in Wayne county, on the 4th Saturday in October, 1825. The following churches all of which hadbeen dismissed from Cumberland River Association were in the constitution: Big Sinking, Otter Creek, Cedar Sinking, Stephens Creek, Pleasant Point, New Salem, New Hope, White Oak,
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Monticello, Bethel and Concord. These churches aggregated 462 members. The leading ministers of the body were Mathew Floyd, Richard Barrier, William Smith, Henry Tuggle and Thomas Hansford. The Association adopted “the principles of general union,” and assumed the name of Concord Association. In 1828, the style of the body was amended by adding the words: "of United Baptists," and, having learned that there was an older association in the State, of the same name, the body farther amended its title, in 1830, by prefixing the word, "South." The Association met on its first anniversary, at Bethel meeting house in Wayne county, on the 2d Saturday in October, 1826. The introductory sermon was delivered by Thomas Hansford, from Matthew 10:18. Matthew Floyd was chosen Moderator, and John Dick, Clerk. The former was elected to the same position 17 successive years, and the latter, 15 successive years. Beaver Creek and Jordan churches were received into the union. Correspondence was received from Cumberland River, Stocktons Valley and South Union Associations. The Articles of Faith of Cumberland River Association were adopted, and ordered to be printed with the minutes. Three "general meetings," afterwards called "section meetings," were appointed to be held respectively at Monticello, White Oak and Big Sinking meeting houses, within the ensuing year; and ministers were appointed to attend them, and preach to the people who should assemble. These gatherings, sometimes called "union meetings," sometimes, "quarterly meetings," and occasionally, though not very appropriately, "annual meetings," were appointed by most of the Associations, in the early years of the denomination, in Kentucky. They proved very beneficial, as they drew large congregations of people together, to whom the best ministers that could be procured, preached the gospel. They were especially important in the Association now under consideration, as they constituted the nearest approach to missionary operations that it has ever made.

The Campbellite schism affected this fraternity seriously. In 1830, the Association passed a resolution of the following purport: "Whereas Alexander Campbell and his followers have spread discord among our churches, Resolved, That we advise the churches which we represent, and the members thereof
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to stand fast in the doctrine they have received, and to reject all that is contrary to it, together with all those preachers who deny the agency of the Holy Spirit in the conversion of sinners, allowing them to preach neither in their meeting houses, nor their dwellings; that our churches be not split and devoured as are some others." This advice, however salutary in principle, did not stop the progress of the heresy. The following year, "Raccoon" John Smith, who had been raised inthat part of the State, a shrewd and artful man -- if his biographer does not greatly misrepresent him -- and a most infatuated follower of Mr. Campbell, visited several points within the bounds of this Association, and disseminated his new tenets with much effect. He spent eight days at Monticello, where the aged Thomas Hansford and others embraced the new doctrines. The numerical loss to the Association was probably not far from 100 -- nearly one-fourth of its aggregate membership. In 1832, it numbered 13 churches with 386 members.

During the next ten years, the Association made fair progress; so that, in 1842, it numbered 17 churches with 1,892 members. But, in consequence of some of its correspondents' having endorsed the "mission system," and some of its own churches being somewhat inclined in the same direction, it had resolved, in 1841, to rid itself of all the confusion growing out of this state of affairs, by suspending correspondence with all the neighboring fraternities. This gave umbrage to some of its churches; and, in 1842, Big Sinking, Cedar Sinking, New Salem, White Oak, Welfare, Big Creek and Pleasant Grove churches demanded that the Association should either resume the suspended correspondence, or grant them letters of dismission. It chose the latter alternative; and these churches, afterwards formed South Cumberland River Association. This reduced South Concord, in 1843, to 11 churches with 572 members. A season of great barrenness followed, and, in 1846, there was but one baptism reported in the whole Association. From this period till 1860, the body had a slow; regular increase, and, at the last named date, numbered 15 churches with 801 members. The next two years it failed to meet, on account of the confusion consequent upon the War. Since the close of the War, a more liberal spirit has prevailed among its churches. Hitherto it had rejected all correspondence with churches and
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associations that favored what it termed the "mission system." But, in 1865, it adopted the following resolutions:

That we present to the Baptist churches [the following] terms of union; ... and that we invite them to unite with us upon the same, having little doubt that it will result in good.
"1st. That we reaffirm the great truth that the scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are the Word of God, and the only rule for christian faith and practice.
"2d. That the church is the highest ecclesiastical authority known to men on earth, and that a Baptist Association is a delegated body - an advisory council, and, in our opinion, should not lord it over God-s heritage.
"3d. That the system of church government set forth in the New Testament, by Jesus Christ, the great head and lawgiver of the church, and exemplified bythe apostles, is sufficiently plain for the spread of the gospel, and should be complied with by every Baptist church."

The 3d resolution is intended to declare the sufficiency of the churches to carry out the commission to "teach all nations," without the use of such human expedients as missionary and Bible societies. However, the neighboring associations, reserving the privilege of putting their own construction on the language, accepted the terms, and the result has proved salutary. Immediately after the adoption of these resolutions, the most extensive revival ever enjoyed in this fraternity, prevailed among the churches; and, in 1866, they reported 363 baptisms. The Association enjoyed a good degree of prosperity from this period till 1876, when it numbered 24 churches with 1,554 members. At the last named date, it dismissed 10 churches to form 2d North Concord Association. In 1882, it numbered 16 churches, aggregating 1,017 members. During 50 of the first 57 years of its existence, there were baptized into the fellowship of its churches, 2,683 converts.

This body has discussed few queries, and few points in doctrine or church polity. In 1843, it advised that to follow, or not follow, foot washing should be no bar to fellowship; in 1860, it counseled the churches not to receive Pedo-baptist immersions, and, in 1871, resolved to maintain the union of the great Baptist family, inviolate. It also agreed, in 1877, to cooperate with Stockton Valley Association in establishing a high school.
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The Coopers, who were of German extraction, and whose name was originally written Keifer, have been prominent in this Association, during its entire history. They were early settlers in Wayne county, where at least three of them were Revolutionary pensioners.

George Frederick Cooper (or Kiefer), according to a family tradition, came with Daniel Boone to Kentucky, in 1775, and was with that distinguished pioneer when he recaptured his daughter and the Misses Calloway, from the Indians, in July of the following year. He afterwards served four years in the War of the Revolution. At the close of the War, he returned to Kentucky, and settled, first, in Mercer county; but afterwards, moved to Wayne county and located on Beaver Creek, where he spent the remainder of a long and virtuous life.

Henry Cooper, son of the above, was born in Kentucky, in 1791. At an early age, he professed religion and joined Beaver Creek church, in Wayne county. After some years, he was licensed to exercise his gift, and, in due time, was ordained to the ministry. He is said to have been a young preacher of excellent promise. But he was not allowed to remain long in the harvest field. The Lordcalled him home, June 1, 1826. Some of his children are still prominent members of Beaver Creek church.

William Armstrong Cooper, son of Elder Henry Cooper, was born in Wayne county, Ky., May 4, 1813. He was brought up on a farm, and received only such an education as the schools of his neighborhood could afford. But possessing superior natural gifts, he acquired a good stock of knowledge by his own unaided efforts. At the age of 20 years, he professed hope in Christ, and was baptized into the fellowship of Beaver Creek church, by Matthew Floyd. A year later, he was married to Sallie Cooper. He was licensed to exercise his gift, about 1835, and was ordained to the pastoral care of Beaver Creek church, about 1840. To this congregation he has continued to minister to the present time. He has also served the churches at Seventy-Six, Clear Fork, Bethel, and 2d New Hope and Friendship, during longer or shorter periods. He is regarded a preacher of superior ability, and the esteem in which he is held by his brethren, is evinced in the fact that he has been elected moderator of South Concord Association at least
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19 times, has served it as clerk, two years, and preached the introductory sermon before it on at least 18 occasions. During the year 1876, he baptized 450 persons, and he supposes he has baptized, in all, something over 2,000 converts.

Richard Barrier (popularly pronounced Byers,) was of German extraction, and was born in Spartensburg district, S. C., in 1768. He was ordained to the ministry, in 1801, and began his labors, in Kentucky, among the churches of Cumberland River Association. As early as 1812 -- how much earlier is not known, he was the minister of Big Sinking church, in Wayne county. With this church, he entered into the constitution of South Concord Association, in 1825. He labored among the churches of this fraternity, till his strength failed, from old age. He possessed good practical sense, was a fine humorist, and was much esteemed, both as a citizen and a preacher. After a successful ministry of more than 50 years, he left the walks of men, July 1, 1854.

Henry Tuggle was a prominent preacher in this Association. He was a native of Virginia, and was born, in 1799. During the great revival of 1801, he obtained hope in Christ, and united with a Baptist church. Where he was set apart to the ministry, or where his early labors were performed, does not appear, but he was an ordained preacher, at Bethel church in Wayne county in 1822. Soon after this, he became a member of New Hope, and with that church, entered into the constitution of South Concord Association, in 1825. About 1840, he moved his membership to Pleasant Point, in Pulaski county, where he finished his course, July 4, 1856.

Mr. Tuggle was regarded a good preacher, in his generation. His labors were blessed of the Lord, and he was held in high esteem by the people amongwhom he labored. He was moderator of South Concord Association, from 1842 to 1846.

Tandy James labored acceptably in this Association, several years. Of his early life, nothing is known to the author. He was an ordained minister when he settled in Pulaski, county, about 1842. Here he united with Zion church, to which, with others, he ministered, some 15 years. He was a quiet, orderly man of moderate preaching talents and good practical judgement, and his labors were useful. The master called him home, in March, 1857.
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Moses H. Wilson was born Nov. 1, 1807, and was raised up in Russell county, Ky. At the age of 25 years, he professed faith in the Redeemer and united with Friendship church, in his native county. In this church, he was ordained to the ministry, and soon afterwards entered into the constitution of Welfare church, in the same county. Again he went into the constitution of a new church, which took the name of Clear Fork, and was also located in Russell county. To this congregation he ministered, from its constitution, till the Lord called him home, Jan. 17, 1862. He was not a preacher of brilliant gifts; but he was a man of unswerving integrity, and was justly esteemed, both as a citizen, and as a religious teacher.

New Salem Association

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This small fraternity is located in the counties of Letcher, Floyd, Perry, Breathitt and Pike, in the extreme eastern border of the State. It was constituted, in 1825, of the following churches: New Salem, Mud, Sand Lick, Stone Coal, Union, Owen Fork, Raccoon, and Louisa Fork, all of which had probably been dismissed from Burning Spring Association. Their aggregate membership has not been ascertained. The country in which they are located, is rough and mountainous, and is thinly populated, even at the present time; and the Association has made but little progress. In 1843, a revival prevailed among its churches, and its aggregate membership was nearly doubled, within two or three years. In 1844, it numbered 14 churches with 758 members. But, during the next ten years, it gradually declined; and, in 1854, it numbered only 13 churches with 465 members. It again enjoyed a season of prosperity, and, in 1859, reached a membership of 20 churches and 614 members. But, at this date, it dismissed 9 churches, aggregating 284 members, to form Union Association. After the War, it increased so rapidly, that, in 1873, it reported 18 churches with 834 members, the largest aggregate membership it has ever attained. But this prosperity seemed to make it arrogant and presumptive. It had previously dropped the term "United," from its title, and now styled itself "Regular Baptists." The following proceedings will sufficiently explain both the attitude of the body, in
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regard to benevolent operations, and the cause of its rapid decline. In the midst of the greatest prosperity it ever enjoyed, it began to agitate the subject of benevolent societies. Evil counsel prevailed; and, in 1875, it recorded on its minutes, the following item: "The item to notice secret organizations, was taken up and debated. Resolved, therefore, That we, as the Regular Baptist Association, known as the New Salem Association, do declare a non-fellowship with all modern institutions, called benevolent: such as missionary, Bible and tract societies, Sunday-school Union and Masonry, and all societies set on foot by men, whether secret or open, religious or political, outside of the word of God."

Some of the members of Union Association, one of its correspondents, as well as its daughter "filed an objection" against the above item. But instead of trying to give satisfaction to these brethren, it rejected the correspondence of the wounded sister, in 1876, and recorded on its minutes the following: "That we ... do declare a non-fellowship with all modern institutions: such as missionary Baptists, Bible and tract societies, Sunday-school Unions and Masonry, and all societies set on foot by men or devils, outside of the word of God." This year, nine of the churches demanded letters of dismission, to form a new organization, which, when constituted, took the name of Sand Lick Association. From this time, New Salem Association gradually declined. But, as if crazed on the subject of benevolent institutions, it passed the following item, in 1877: "We, as an advising council, say to all our churches, ... Cleanse yourselves of secret organizations." In 1880, the body numbered 12 churches, aggregating 377 members.

Of the ministers who first carried the gospel into this mountainous region, very little is known. The famous pioneer, Daniel Williams, was the first to preach the word, on the upper waters of the Licking River. He gathered Burning Spring church, where Samuel Hannah and Ezekiel Stone were presently raised up to the ministry, and preached among the settlers. Caleb May was also raised up to the ministry here, and preached for a short time, with much acceptance. But he soon died of a cancer on his breast.

Simeon Justice was among the first preachers who settled on the upper waters of Big Sandy river. He gathered a church
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called Stone Coal, on Beaver creek, to which he ministered a short time. He was a large, corpulent man, and was very nearsighted. Notwithstanding these barriers, he walked over an extensive area of that mountainous region, to fill his appointments He lived but a few years after locating in this region. A story is told of him to the following effect: As he was returning from one of his appointments, while walking a narrow and somewhat dangerous path, he was confronted by a rattle snake. He detected the presence of the venimous beast, by its rattle, being so near-sighted that he could not see it, although it was within two or three yards of his feet.The path was so narrow, and the mountain side along which it lay was so steep and rocky, that there was no way to get around the defiant reptile. Guided by the noise of its rattle, he threw stones at it until it became silent. He then walked cautiously over its mangled body, and proceeded homewards.

John Morris was born on Smiths river, in Virginia, about 1780. In early life, he emigrated to Floyd county, Kentucky, and settled on Beaver creek, where he spent the remainder of a very long and useful life. Here he united with Stone Coal church, then under the pastoral care of good old Simeon Justice. Here he was ordained to the ministry, in 1819, and soon afterwards succeeded to the pastoral care of Stone Coal church. To this congregation he ministered, 50 years. To what other churches he preached, the author is not informed. He was much loved and revered by the people among whom he lived and labored; and his influence over them was very great. "He was a good man, and full of the Holy Ghost and of faith, and much people was added to the Lord." The Master took him to himself, when he was go years old, in 1870.

John A. Caudill was of a very numerous family of his name, which has produced many preachers, in the eastern counties of Kentucky. He was born in Ash county, N.C., January 1, 1798. In his childhood, he was brought by his parents to what is now Letcher county, Kentucky, where he grew up, with only such an education as enabled him to read and write. He was converted to Christ, about 1825, and was baptized into the fellowship of Sand Lick church, by John Dixon, it is believed. In 1837, he was licensed to exercise his gift, and, in 1838, was ordained to the ministry, by John Dixon and
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others. He was afterwards called to the care of Carrs Fork, Thornton and Indian Bottom churches, to which he is said to have ministered acceptably, and with profit. He also served Cowan church, for a time. He died, May 10, 1873.

William V. Mullins was born in what is now Hawkins county, Tenn., November, 24, 1803. He came to Kentucky at the age of 15 years. At a period not specified by his biographer, he united with a church under the care of William Tackett, by whom he was baptized. In 1832, he was licensed to preach, and was ordained to the ministry, soon afterwards, by John A. Morris and Nathan B. Kelley. He raised up Joppa church, and a church on Licking river, the name of which is unknown, both of which he served as pastor. He was also pastor of several other churches in New Salem Association, at different periods.

Among the living ministers of this Association, William Cook appears to be one of the most prominent and influential. He is a man of fine cheerful spirit, is active and zealous in his holy calling, and has usually been moderator of his Association, for a number of years past. Two of his stepsons, of the name of Hopkins, were pious young preachers in New Salem Association.

[J. H. Spencer, A History of Kentucky Baptists, Volume 2, 1886; reprint 1984, pp. 307-330. Scanned and formatted by Jim Duvall.]

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