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Morgan Edwards's Notebook on North Carolina Baptists

[Footnotes changed to endnotes.]

Morgan Edwards was a native of Wales and came to Philadelphia in 1761 to be the pastor of the Baptist church of that place. Here he labored for ten years. In 1770 he began to gather materials for a history of the Baptists of America, in pursuit of his purpose traveling through the provinces from New Hampshire to Georgia. In 1772 he spent several months in North Carolina visiting churches and associations. Such information as he could gather he assembled in notebooks, one for each province visited. These notebooks are now to be found in the library of the American Baptist Historical Society, at Chester, Pennsylvania. Later Mr. Edwards expanded each notebook into what he called a volume which included some matter not found in the original. These were left in manuscript but were freely used by Benedict in his History of the Baptists. That for North Carolina, entitled Materials towards the History of the Baptists of North Carolina, has been published with annotations in the North Carolina Historical Review for July, 1930. The notebooks have never before been published. A manuscript copy of that for North Carolina was made about a half century ago by Mr. J. C. Birdsong for the North Carolina State Library. A copy of this, collated with the original at Chester, is the basis of the publication that follows. I introduce it here since it contains matter relative to both the preceding account of the General and Particular Baptists and that of the Separate Baptists which follows.
of Pennsylvania

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In the county of Anson, 200 EbN from Newburn and -- miles from Phila. No meeting house. Const. March 28, 1772, at the house of William Morris. Families 8, Memb. 14, Minister


Born May 24, 1733, at the mouth of Nuse river. Bred a churchman. Embraced the principles of the Baptists in 1760 in Dobbs County by Rev. George Graham. Called to the ministry in 1762. Ordained March 29, 1772, when he took care of the church. He married Eliz. Bennett by whom he had children Sherdock, Henry, Bennett, John, James, Elizabeth, William, Mary, Martha, Joel. Came here

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in 1764, and preached in 1770. Baptized the following pursons: Jonathan Lewelin, Wm. Moody, Thomas Summerlin, Wm. Leggate, Wm. Smith, Nathaniel Williams. Mary Smith, Fanny Williams. Constituted March 28, 1772 by Mess. Edwards and Brown.

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{John Boneling at Little River}
It makes into Pedee in the parish of Anson County -- miles from Newburn -- miles SW from Philadelphia. The house is 80 feet by 20, built in 1758, on land given by Thomas Ward. This church consists of four branches; one near; one house on 25 27 17 Rocky river (Edmund Lilly), Jones's Creek; another on Mountain Creek, in each of which places is a house. No estate. Salary 60L=[British pounds]. Ruling elders, laying on of hands admitted here. Divided about love-feasts, washing feet, etc. Families about 60 whereof 48 persons are baptized and in comm. which here is administered the 2nd Lord's day in ______. No ordained minister, but two preachers, John Bollin

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and Edmund Lilly. They began (about 1759 when Mr. Murphy came to the house of John Jefferies on little river and afterwards baptized one Mary Nicholas, John Bowlin & wife, Edmond Nicholas & wife, John Lucas, Wm. Lucas)3 1760, when the following pursons were formed into a church before they removed hither from Deep River, viz: Richard Curtis, Josephs Murphy and wife, John Lee and wife, William Searsy and wife and Susan Carr. The most remarkable things that may be said of this church are (1) That in three year it increased from 8 souls to 500 but is now reduced low by removal of families to other parts, chiefly occasioned by oppressions which seems to them remediless since the battle of Almance. The first minister was


He was born April 1, 1734, in Spotsylvania. Bred a churchman. (Embraced the principles of the Baptists in 1757 and had the) ordinance administered to him by

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Shubal Stearns. Ordained in 1760 at which time he had the care of his little emigrating church; but resigned in 1768 to go to the Atkin. His success is no less surprising than his conversion. He was once wicked to a proverb, but now an eminent christian and a useful preacher.

The vile Col. F__n accused him of aiding and abettin the regulation whereof he was as clear as any man whatsoever; yet a party of horse was sent to seize him, but could not find him. He married a Haley, by whom he has children: Sarah, Ferreby, Eleanor, Susanna, Elizabeth.

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So called from a creek running into deep river, a branch of Cape fear, in the county of Guilford, 250 miles NW from Newburn, and -----miles from Philadelphia. The house is 30 feet by 26, built in 1762 on the land of Seamore York. No estate. Laying on of hands and ruling elders admitted. No salary except helps in labour and presents, to the amount of 201. The families about 40, whereof 15 pursons are baptized and in communion, which was here administered every other Sunday, except when they could not get wine. No ordained ministers but exhorters, Met Tiden Lane and James Billingsley, They began in this manner. The fall after

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Braddock's defeat (November 22, 1755) the following pursons came from Opekon, in Virginia and settled in the neighbourhood of Sandy Creek, viz.: Rev. Shubal Stearns and wife, Daniel Marshall and wife, Joseph Breed and wife, Shubal Stearns Senr. and his wife, Ebenezer Stearns and wife, Enos Stinson and wife, Peter Stearns and wife, Jonathan Polk and wife: the same year they built a little meeting house near the present, where they administered the Lord's Supper. Soon after the neighbourhood was alarmed and the Spirit of God listed to blow as a mighty rushing wind in so much that in three years time they had increased to three churches, consisting upwards of 900 communicants, viz: Sandy Creek, Abot's Creek, Deep river. The most remarkable

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events are these: (1) It is a mother church, nay a grand mother, and a great grand mother. All the separate baptists sprang hence: not only eastward towards the sea, but westward towards the great river Mississippi, but northward to Virginia and southward to South Carolina and Georgia. The word went forth from this sion, and great was the company of them who published it, in so much that her converts were as the drops of morning dew. The first church that sprang hence was Abboot's Creek, then Deep River, Little river, New River, (Ezek. Hunter) Southwest (Charles Marklin), Trent (James McDaniel), Staunton-river, Virg. (William Murphy), Fall-creek, Va. (Samuel Harris), Dan river, Va. (Dutton Lane), Grassy-creek (James Reed),

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John Waller's church, Va Amelia Va. (Jeremiah Walker), Fair-forest, S. C. (Phil Mulkey) Congaree, S. C. (Joseph Rees), Stephens-Creek, S. C. (Dan. Marshal), Shallow-fords, N. C., (Joseph Murphy), &c. The ministers, Daniel Marshall, Philip Mulkey, John Newton, Joseph Murphy, William Murphy, Dutton Lane, Ezekiel Hunter, Charles Marklin, James McDaniel, Joseph Rees, James Reed, Samuel Harris, John Waller, Jeremy Walker, ----- Ireland, Elijah Creague (Craig), Elnathan Davis. (2) This church was reduced in --- years to --- souls, partly by detachments to form other churches; partly by departure of families to other province, partly by the regulation; the battle of Alamance was fought within 20 miles of it. The first minister


He had mess. Joseph Breed and Daniel Marshall. Mr. Stearns was born January 28, 1706 in Boston. Bred a Presbyterian. Embraced the principles in the year 1751 at Tolland in Connecticut, and had the ordinance administered to him by Rev. Wait Palmer. Came first to Opekon, in Virginia and thence to Sandy Creek, November 14, 1755. Died November 20, 1771, and was buried at Sandy Creek. He married Sarah Johnstone, but left no issue. Was ordained March 20, 1751 at Tolland by Rev. mess. Wait Palmer and Joshua Moss, elders of Stonington and New london.


It began in 1758, in June 2d Monday, at Sandy-creek, and therefore called the Sandy-creek association. The constituents were the church of Sandy-creek, of Abbot's-creek, and of Deep-river. In --- years it increased to --- churches. It is moveable, Held now the 2nd Saturday in October -- held this year5 at Haw River.

The churches in the Association are --
Sandy creek -- Shubal Stearns.
Newriver -- Ezekiel Hunter.
Southwest -- Charles Markland.
Haw river -- Elnathan Davis
Little river -- John Bollin (not ordained)
Grassy creek -- James Reed6*
Shallow Fords -- Joseph Murphy, Dan. Marshall.
Lockwood's folly -- Mr. Guess (not ordained)
Trent -- James McDonald.6*

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This association held at Sandy Creek the 2d Saturday in October 1769, resolved "That if any took up arms against the civil authority he be excommunicated."

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So called from the fords of the Atkin river, in the county of Surry 30 miles NW from Newburn, and --- miles from Philadelphia. Two branches, one near, the other at Mulberry fields, another in the forks of the Atkin, near the Moravian settlement. Began with a few from Little, the remains of the Jersey Settlement church. The minister Joseph Murphy, born in Spotsylvania Ap 5, 1734. Bred a churchman -- baptized by Shubal Stearns at Deep river in 1757, ordained 1760. Children -- Sarah, Ferribe, Eleanor, Susanna, Elizabeth. The mother's name is Haly.

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A branch near, another near the head of the Roannoak -- one at Staunton river. Begun about 1762. The minister William Murphy. Baptized at Deep river by Shubal Stearns. Ordained at Staunton in 1768. He married Sarah Barton: his first was one of the Hodges. He has children by both: John, Keziah, William, Joseph, Tabitha.

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The north branch of Cape Fear near to which the principal meeting house stands in Chatham County, 20 miles above the fork, 190 miles west from Newburn, and -- SSW from Philadelphia. The church consists of six: branches: one near Haw River, where is a house 32 feet by 24, built in 1769, on vacant land; another at Collin's Mount, north side of Haw River, Deep River, Rocky-river, Tick-creek Caraway Creek in Guilford County, at each of which is a meeting house. The minister Rev. Elnathan Davis, who has to his assistance Nathaniel Powell, (Deepriver) Drury Sims (Rockriver)* [*Thomas Brown, (Collin's Mount), John Robins, Caraway Creek], George Williams, (Rocky River) James Steward (Haw River). The families about 310 whereof 198 are baptised and in communion, which is here administered

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the last Sunday in Jan., Apr., Jul., Oct., In rotation at each branch. No estate. No settled salary, but helped to the amount of about 201 a year. Ruling elders, imposition of hands, love feasts, kiss of charity, anointing the sick, washing feet, &c., are admitted. They had their beginning in this manner: When Mulkey's church at Deep River emigrated the following remained: Nathaniel Powell, Conrad Dowde and wife, Isaac Brooks and wife, Mary Brooks, Sharper and Cato (negroes) Mr. Hodge, James Steward, Simon Poe, Robert Calleh, Samuel Mash, (these four baptised by Stearns). These constituted into a church the last Saturday in October, 1764. joined Sandy Creek Association October 1765.

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The first Minister is the present (Remark*)

(Remarks) things (1) They resolved the last Saturday in November to excommunicate any that would join the Regulators.8 Mash threatened much. -- took many rifles. Robert Mash was threatened with 30 lashes a month till he consented to join the Regulators. born November 9, 1735 at Baltimore county in Maryland, bred a 7th day Baptist; raised on James River in Virginia. Came to this part of the country in 1757. Baptised by Shubal Stearns May 1764. Called to the ministry at Haw river, the same year. Ordained November 13, 1770, by Rev. Mes. Samu. Harris & the elder James Steward. Married Mary Collins by whom he has children, Ruth, Benjamin, Elizabeth, James, Jonathan. His conversion -- He went to see John Steward dipt, and so to hear Mr. Stearns. When he had stood a while he saw the people cry and tremble; then went off to pursons at a dis-

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tance. They asked "What think you of those damned people?" he made no reply, but went back -- felt the people that were trembling -- found It was real -- praid that if it were of God he might have a feeling -- if not of God that he might stand unattacted. The trembling seized him. Red Roman 8.1. which sealed his condemnation on Tuesday. Sunday following had deliverances.

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In Granville county 165 miles NW from Newburn, and --- miles from Philadelphia. It consists of two branches; one near where is a meeting house 38 [32] feet by 20, built in 1765 on land given by James Meadows; the other at Flat River, where a meeting is kept in a school house. No estate, no salary. no elders, no laying on of hands. The families about 56, whereof 42 pursons are baptised and in communion, which is here administered the 4th Lords day in Jan., Apr., Jul., Oct. They had their beginning as a church by Henry Ledbetter and wife, John Shearman and wife, Thomas Goss and wife, Richard Gibbs and wife, Edward Vesy and wife, James Langston, Solomon Langston, Jeremiah

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Lewis and wife, Benjamin Hubbard, William Forrest, Mary Shoemaker, Absolom Langston, Lucy Thompson. Elizabeth Spen. These were the 3rd day of April in 1761, constituted by Mr. Walker, of Fishing-creek, at whose church they had been a branch, joined the conference in 1764. The first minister was


a native of Virginia. Bred a churchman. Baptised by Richard Jones at Barley in Virginia about 1745; ordained about 1746, became minister of Tar River (in 1738. Continued therein minister to 17 1756-1761. Resigned in favor of Mr. Abbott while it was Arminian)9 at the constitution in 1761, resigned the same year to Ledbetter. Married Tabitha Reeves, who bor him many children. Prosecuted in North Carolina for saying in Virginia churchmen were fools. Lost 401 at En-

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taught to be a Calvinist by Mr. Hollingsworth.
(See Leunches Creek)10
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So called from one of the small fords of the Atkin river, near to which the meeting house stands, in the county of Surry, 300 miles NW from Newburn and 560 miles SW from Philadelphia. The church consists of three branches, one near the ford where is a place of worship 30 feet by 26, built in 1769; another in the fork of the Atkin, another in the Mulberry fields. Ruling Elders. laying on of hands are here admitted, but stand divided about washing feet &c. No estate, no salary except presents, labour &c., to the amount of perhaps L20. The minister is


who has to his assistance Messrs. David Allen, John Cates,

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David Chapman. The families about 350, whereof 185 pursons are baptised and in communion, which is here celebrated the 4th Lords day in the month. -- They began partly by emigrant baptists who came hither from other churches, partly by the remains of Mr. Gano's church in Jersey-settlement, and partly by the labour of Mr. Joseph Murphy, who baptised several. These to the number of 32 were, in 1769, constituted into a distinct church, and joined the Sandy Creek Association in ---. No remarkable event hath happened since, except the rapid increase or the society from 32 to 185, in three years time. The minister


So called from a branch of Stanton river (which (lower down) is Roannoak) near to which the meeting house stands in the county of Pitsylvania 216 miles N. from W.

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A branch of Tar-river, near to which the meeting house stands in the parish of St. John, and county of Bute, 150 NW from Newburn, and --- miles SSW from Philadelphia. The church consists of three branches, one near the said Creek, where is a house 52 feet by 28, erected in 1771 on a lot of 2 acres, the gift of Thomas Onebey, another at Benefield's Creek, 28 miles off, another at Sandy Creek 17 miles off, in each of which is a meeting house. Benefield's-Creek is soon to be constituted. No estate. The salary 401 a year to the present minister, Rev. William Walker. He has his assistants, Zechariah Thomson, and William Cook; No laying on

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of hands; ruling elders admitted. No feast of charity &c. The families about 500, whereof 250 pursons are baptised and in communion, which is here administered in rotation the 3rd Sunday in the month. This the present state. The began Dece. 6, 1755, when the following pursons were constituted into a church by means of Rev. mess. Benjamin Miller and P. P. Vanborn: Samuel Davis, Samuel Mangum, James Petty and wife Sarah Davis, Richard Acock and wife, Richard Rennett, Martha Acock. The most remarkable things: (1) This is a church by a kind of transformation from general to particular Baptists, this transformation happened at Quehuky by means of Robert Williams who

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sowed the seeds of Calvinism, after him a private man, (whose name was William Wallis) conversed with them and made some impression; then Edward Brown preached it, then Thomas Pope; then William Walker; afterwards Gano clenched it in 1753, afterwards by said Miller and Vanhorn. (2) Mother of John McGlamery, Ledbetter and Smart, Thomson, Wm. Washington, Walker. The present minister


Born January 24, 1717, at Newkent county, Virginia. Bred a churchman, embraced the sentiments of the Baptists August 9, 1746, and had the ordinance administered by Wm. Surgenor at Quehooky. Ordained in 1748 by Josiah Hart

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and Deacon; embraced calvinism in the year 1752. Took care of the church about 1755. Married Jane Bays, by whom he has children: Peter, Sarah, William, Mary, Martha, James, John, Joel, Lydia, Mercy Hope. His predecessor was

REV. THOMAS POPE. (put him under Quehuky)

Born in 1728 at Quehooky in (Virginia.)13 Bred a churchman; embraced the principles of the general baptists in 1750, and had the ordinance administered by William Surgenor. Ordained by Mess. Surgenor and Hart, in 1754. Soon after he embraced the freegrace scheme and took the care of this church. Died 1768, and was buried at Quehuky. He married Alice Ford, by whom he had children named, Amos, Edy.

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Began the Monday after the first Sunday in August 8, 1769. Held the same time. It began with five churches, viz:

Pasquotank (g) 1 -- Henry Abbot & James Camel I Bartee -- James Abbington, dead.
I Quehuky (g) -- William Burges.
I members 172 Tar-river-falls, (g) 5 -- John Moore.
I first Tosneot, (g) 7 -- Jonathan Thomas.
I Tar River -- Henry Ledbetter.
Fishing-creek, (g) 4 -- William Walker.
Red banks -- (g) 9 -- Jeremy Rheame.
Great cohara g -- Edward Brown.
Three-creeks (g) 6 -- (Thos. Tully & James Camel)
Bladen-county, -- Stephen Hollingsworth.
Stony-creek (g) 10-George Graham.
Swifts-creek (g) 8 -- Joseph Willis
Lower Fishing Creek (g) 3 -- Charles Daniel
Contantany (a) -- Joseph Parker.
Pungo (g) 11 -- William Fulsher, near the shore.

(On the left hand page beginning 7 lines from the bottom)
Contantany (a) -- Joseph Parker.
Matchipungo (a) -- William Fulsher.
Meherrin (a) -- William Parker.
Bear River (a) -- --- Winfield.

1. William Burges 		8. Joseph Willis* 
2. William Surgenor 		9. Jeremy Rheame* 
3. Joseph Parker* 		10. George Graham* 
4. William Walker* 		Evangelist, Hart, 
5. John Moore* 		        Ledbetter,* 
6. Thomas Tully* 	        Smart* 
7. John Thomas* 

Paul Palmer gathered a chh at New River in the borders of S C15

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So distinguished from a creek which empties itself into the Tar River; near to which the meeting house stands in the parish of Edgecombe and county of Halifax, 120 miles NW from Newburn, and --- miles SSW from Philadelphia. The church consists of 3 branches; one near Fishing-Creek, where is a place of worship 40 feet by 20, built in 1757, on an acre of land the gift of James Wyat, snr; another on Swift Creek 8 miles off, the other in Rocky-Swamp, 12 miles off where is a meeting house. No estate; no salary; but the people have offered it, and by their number and ability they could easily make it 1001. Ruling elders admitted; no laying on of' hands. Devoting children used. The families about 350 whereof 74

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pursons are baptised and in communion, which is here celebrated the 2nd Sunday in may, Aug., Nov., Feb., and at Rocky-Swamp the 1st in May, Aug., Nov., Feb. The minister is Rev. Charles Daniel, who has William Powell to his assistance. Their beginning was in this manner: From the beginning they had been a society belonging to Mr. Parker for about 8 years, and on the arminian plan; but Oct. 13, 1756, the following pursons were formed into a church on the Calvinistic order by the help of Rev. Thomas Pope, viz: James Wyat, Snr. Nathaniel Powell, Mary Cullender, Francis Spivy, Sarah Spivy, James Wyat, Jun. no very remarkable events, except that it increased faith and is a mother church; that in the meadows near Roanoak being its offspring. The

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first minister since the reform is the present, viz:

Born January -- 1731, near Richmond in Virginia. Bred a churchman; embraced the principles of the Baptists in the Spring of 1749, and had the ordinance administered to him by Rev. Josiah Hart at Fishing Creek. Ordained August 16, 1753, by said Hart and Rev. Henry Ledbetter at said Fishing-Creek. But in 1755 changed his sentiments towards the doctrines of grace, chiefly by means of reading Mr. Whitfield's sermons; became minister of this church soon after the time of the constitution, November 15, 1756. Married Amy Clark, but has no issue. He is reputed a knowing and wise man

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and therefore often consulted in civil affairs. He dropped preaching from the time he suspected the orthodoxy of his first principles, till he was settled in the doctrines of Grace, and had the assurance that he himself was in a state of grace. 16

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So called from the part of Tar River near to which the meeting house stands, in the county of Edgecomb, 110 miles NW from Newburn and --- miles SSW from Philadelphia. The church consists of 2 branches, one near said Falls where is a place of worship 30 feet by 20, erected in 1764 on a lot of one acre, the gift of Wm. Horn; the other near the mouth of Swift's creek 15 miles off.18 The families about 100 where of 64 pursons are baptised and in communion, which is here celebrated the 3rd Sunday in Jan., Apr., Jul., Sept. No estate. The salary, but presents to the amount of about 201. Ruling elders admitted. No laying on of hands. They had their begin-

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ning by a kind of transformation from General into Particular Baptists. The means were: Rev. John Moore and wife, Robert Surgenor and wife, Peter Herington and wife, John Baker. These 7 pursons were (dec 8, 1757) incorporated by help of Rev. Charles Daniel. The most remarkable events are (1) They had been a society for about 12 years before on the Arminian plan, first Mr. Moore by reading Fisher's marrow of modern Divinity and Bynian's Law and Grace, also conversing with William Wallis; then the congregation was brought over to the same sentiments. The first minister is the present


He has John Tanner to his assistance. Mr. Moore was born

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in Nansymond county in Virginia, Aug. 13, 1717. Bred a Churchman. Baptised September 1746, by William Surgenor. Ordained Octber 30, 1748 by said Surgenor and Josiah Hart, Became minister of this church at its constitution. He was remarkably sober from his youth, but was convinced of the sin of his nature by reading the 3rd Sermon of Sam. Smith, called The Great Assize. He was in this trouble for 15 years, and never got rest to his soul till he embraced the doctrines of grace. He married Sarah Meredith, by whom he has children: John, Elizabeth, Keziah, Bethsheba, Elisha, Lewis, Sarah.

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Distinguished by the name of a Creek emptying into Roanoak near to which the meeting house stands in the county of Halifax, 120 miles NW from Newburn, and --- miles SSW Philadelphia. The house is 40 feet by 20, built in 1742, on land given by the late William Sojourner.20 No estate, no salary, except presents. Elders and laying on of hands admitted. The families about 150. whereof 150 pursons are baptised and in communion, here celebrated the first Lord's day in Feb., May, Ag., Nov. The present minister, Rev. William Burgess. They began in the following manner Several of the old General Baptists embraced the doctrines of grace by means

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of Wm. Wallis. Their names were: Rev. Thomas Pope and wife, Abraham Dew, Abner Andrews, Richard Bailey, John Rhodes, John Moore, Francis Spivy, Jane Bryant, Elizabeth Atkinson; these ten pursons were dec 11, 1755 by means of Messrs. Miller and Vanhorn, incorporated into a distinct church. The most remarkable things are: (1) This is the first church in the province of particular Baptists, and mother of Bartee and Notaway (to be constituted June 13, 1772). (2) This had been a General Baptist chh since 1742 and had Wm. Sojourner, Edward Brown, to their ministers, and then Pope, (Sojourner died February 18. 1749-50-aged 43 years and 7 months, Married Mary West alias Widow Boykin, by whom he had children, Jacob, Ann, Tamer. Brown is alive). The first minister was

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Born near Blackwater in Virginia. Bred a churchman, Baptised by Mr. Sojourner. Ordained about 1751. Took care of the church after Brown. And resumed it at the new constitution in 1755. Died March 1, 1762. Married Alice Foreman (alias Widow Ford) by whom he had children, Edy, Amos; he single; she married Richard Hamlin. After Mr. Pope, Mr. Charles Daniel supplied them. Then came on


Born January 7, 1780, in Maryland. Bred a Presbyterian. Baptised by Rev. William Walker at Fishing-creek the 3rd Sunday in May 1765. Ordained the 2d Sunday in: February 1767 by Mess. Daniel, Abbot, and Moore. Took up the

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care of the church in 1768. Resigned May 2, 1772, in favor of Mr. Burgess. Married Lettice Nelms, by whom he has children, Sarah, Ann, Elizabeth. His successor of the present


Born, December 24, 1721, at Pasquotank. Baptised by William Burgess. Ordained May 2, 1772, by Messrs Moore, Edwards, Meglamre and Thomas, at which time he took care of the church. Married Sarah Scarborough, after her Penelope Bryant; his children, Mary, Malachi, Elizabeth, Mourning, Bryant, Winifred, Dempsy, John, Sarah.



1. Hitchcock's Creek is a small stream in the present county of Richmond, emptying into Falling Creek near Rockingham.

2. This church was near the mouth of Little River in the part of Anson that was erected into Montgomery County. It was later known as the Fork of Little River.

3. In the original notebook Mr. Edwards has run a cancellation line through the words here printed in italics, his reason evidently being that they do not concern the establishment of Little River as an independent church. The canceled words show that Murphy had preached and baptized in this place before he brought the organized church from Deep River. The congregation already had a meeting house built in 1758, and in that year were represented at the Sandy Creek Association by its minister, Joseph Breed.

4. The correct spelling of Mr. Stearns's name seems to be that given by Edwards, "Shubal." Mr. Stearns himself so spelled it in signing four petitions in favor of men accused as Regulators, Colonial Records, IX, 27 ff. The same spelling was used by Semple in his History of the Virginia Baptists. The spelling "Shubael," a Scripture name, was used by Backus in his Abridgment, p. 250, in the year 1804; and later by Benedict and other writers.

5. 177l.

6. Mr. Edwards was not consistent in his spelling. James McDonald here appears above as James McDaniel, which is the correct form. Charles Markland, whose name appears here in correct spelling, is called Charles Marklin above. A star seems to indicate an evangelist, or itinerant preacher.

7. By inadvertance Mr. Edwards introduces a Virginia church here. Another, Black Water, will be found below. Probably, however, both in 1772 were in the Sandy Creek Association.

8. In the copy made by Mr. Birdsong the reading is, "they resolved to excommunicate any that would not join the Regulators. The original has the reading given in the text.

9. The words in italics are canceled by Mr. Edwards and are altogether omitted in his fuller account, Materials, etc. This is a good illustration of Mr. Edward's purpose to obscure as much as possible the work of the General Baptists. Leaving out the canceled words the account contains little intimation that Tar River was ever a General Baptist church or that Henry Abbot was ever pastor here.

10. Lynch's Creek, S. C.

11. Probably this second account of the Shallow Ford church was written after Mr. Edwards had got more information than he had when he wrote his first account.

12. This church is called Reedy Creek by Burkitt and Read and is still called by this name. It is located eight miles south of Macon, Warren County.

13. The word "Virginia" is canceled in the original. Kehukee was probably not settled so early as 1728. In his Materials Edwards says that Pope "was born near Blackwater in Virginia."

14. With reference to this table of the Kehukee Association the reader will note: (1) James Camel is for Elder James Gamewell, who labored chiefly in the churches in Pasquotank and Currituck. (2) Bartee indicates the pronunciation of Bertie in Edwards's day. (3) In the original the names given in italics under Three Creeks are canceled. This church had several branches on the waters of Swift, Middle and Black creeks which rise in Wake and flow through Johnston. One of these churches, Swift Creek, constituted in 1757, is the oldest church in Wake County. (4) In the table of the churches (g) indicates that the church was first a General Baptist church, (a) that the church was in Edwards's time still Arminian, or General Baptist. The names following the names of the churches were those of the ministers at the time Edwards was writing. The names referred to by numbers are those of the first pastors of the churches indicated. The stars seem to indicate evangelists or itinerant preachers. The numbers are in chronological order. The number 11 set against Pungo is omitted below, where it should have been set against the name of Evangelist Hart, of whch according to Edwards's statement elsewhere he was the founder. (5) The General Baptist churches Contantony (Contentnea) with Joseph Parker as pastor, and Pungo with Williams Fulsher as pastor were never, as indicated by Edwards, members of the Kehukee Association. But at Pungo the Regular Baptists built a church in the same church yard and soon absorbed much of the membership of the older church, and in the Contentnea section the Regular Baptist church at Toisnot had a branch. Hence Edwards's confusion. The Arminian churches indicated in small Roman type at the foot of the table were not intended to be included by Edwards in the Kehukee list.

15. This is the only reference to Paul Palmer in Edwards's notebook for North Carolina. We have seen that he excised a reference to him that he first included in his account of the Tar River church. This instance will indicate how painstaking Edwards was to avoid all reference to the work of the General Baptists. Probably his Particular Baptist informers were as reticent. It will be observed that Mr. Edwards places New River in South Carolina, whereas it was in Onslow County, North Carolina. In his notebook on South Carolina Baptists, in a note under his table of the Charleston Association, Edwards has the following with reference to Palmer: "Rev. Paul Palmer was the father of the general Baptists in North Carolina, about 30 years ago." In his Materials for North Carolina Edwards has only a very brief and erroneous sketch of Mr. Palmer.

16. The Minutes of the Kehukey Association, p. 11, indicate that it was for moral delinquency that Daniel was silenced. This is corroborated by Burkitt and Read's statement, Kehukee Association, 235.

17. This church is today a church of the Primitive Baptists in Rocky Mount.

18. The Swift Creek church here mentioned was near the mouth of that stream and in Kehukee Association is called "Edgecombe County" with Elder John Tanner as pastor. It had become a Separate Baptist church in 1777. It is not to be confused with the Swift Creek which is mentioned above as a branch of Lower Fishing Creek, and which was located somewhere near the site of the town of Battleboro.

19. "Kehukey" is written also in the Minutes of Kehukee Association. ("James Sprunt Historical Monograph No.5"). In his Materials Edwards writes "Quehuky." Burkitt and Read write "Kehukee," the spelling now adopted.

20. Elsewhere in his notebook Edwards writes "Surgenor," which seems to indicate that the name was accented on the first syllable.

21. This second sketch of Pope is more accurate than that given above.


[From George W. Paschal, History of North Carolina Baptists, 1930, 224-239. Scanned and formatted by Jim Duvall.]

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