Was Constituted by the aid of the Rev. Stephen Gano, afterward of Providence, Rhode Island, on
the 20th of January, 1790,* at the house of Benjamin Davis, in Columbia, five miles above the present site of Cincinnati. This was on Saturday, and immediately after organizing the church, then consisting of nine persons, viz.; Benjamin Davis, Mary Davis, Isaac Ferris, Jonah Reynolds, Elizabeth Ferris, Amy Reynolds, John Ferris, John S. Gano. and Thomas C. Wade, Isaac Ferris was appointed Deacon, and John S. Gano, Clerk. The door of the church was then opened, and Elijah Stite, Rhoda Stites, and Sarah Ferris were received on experience and baptized by Dr. Gano on the next day. Thomas Sloo, a member of Dr. Gano’s church in New York City, and who had come out West with Dr. Stephen Gano, were present. Both Mr. Sloo and Dr. John Gano afterward moved to Kentucky. Soon after three others, Mrs. Meek, Smith, and Baily united by letter; and thus the First Baptist Church in the Northwestern Territory commenced with the above twelve members. On the 24th of January, 1790* at a called meeting, they gave a unanimous invitation to Rev. Stephen Gano to become their
* These dates ae given on the authority of a diary kept by Dr. William Goforth, one of the first settlers in Columbia, and were furnished by his daughter, Mrs. Mary Gano, widow of John S. Gano, one of the members of the church at Columbia. Mrs. Gano is still living and active, May 1857. But Dr. Ezra Ferris, of Lawrenceburg, Indiana, lately deceased, and who was present at the organization of the church, is positive it took place on the last Saturday in March, 1790.
pastor; but this he declined. Dr Stephen Gano was a brother of John S. Gano, before named, and through whose influence, it was hoped, he would accept and come West to live near his brother.
In May following this little church, without any pastor, was visited by Elder John Smith, then residing in Western Pennsylvania, though, by birth and education, a Virginian. His preaching was highly acceptable to the church, and before he left he was invited to become their pastor. This invitation was accepted on condition of being allowed time to settle his business at home. This required a longer time than he anticipated, and he did not take charge of the church until May, 1791.
In the meantime, Daniel Clark, a licentiate from Whitely Church, Pennsylvania arrived with his own and other Baptist families. Elder Clark was immediately invited to supply the church until the arrival of John Smith. This he consented to do, and not only supplied this year’s absence of the pastor, but continued to labor for the church, with Elder Smith, for some five years longer. Their joint labors were harmonious, and a friendship was formed between the two that never was broken. John Smith was a man of fine natural abilities, dignified, affable in his manners, with a most pleasing address in the pulpit. Daniel Clark was a plain man, of great integrity of
character, and, though not eloquent, yet an acceptable preacher.
At the October church meeting, 1791, fifteen persons united by letter and two were received by experience and baptism. In the spring of 1792, the church resolved to build a meeting-house on a lot in Columbia, donated by Major Stites. Until this time; the site had been considered too much exposed to the Indians, as being too far from Fort Miami, the place of refuge and defense for the inhabitants of Columbia when attacked, as they frequently were, by the Indians. The house was so far completed in the spring of 1793, as to be occupied for preaching. The law then required every able-bodied man attending meetings for worship, to carry his fire-arms with him, prepared to defend the inhabitants as well as those at the meeting from any attack of the Indians. On the first day the house was opened for worship, Col. Spencer, one of the early settlers at Columbia, and at that time at the head of the militia, attended the services, and at the close addressed the militia and pointed out the necessity of strict discipline at these meetings. On another occasion, during the same season, when the congregation had assembled for worship, two men came from the woods with an Indian's scalp which they had just taken; and during this and the next year, two members of the church, Francis Griffin and David Jennings,
were killed by the savages. A number more of the inhabitants of Columbia were killed by the Indians during the years of 1791-2, and several taken prisoners; among them, O. M. Spencer, son of Col. Spencer; above named, and long after a well-known citizen of Cincinnati. All their religious meetings, therefore, until Wayne's victory in the autumn of 1794 (and the treaty of Greenville in the next year), had to be guarded by armed men.
After Wayne's victory in the autumn of 1794, the inhabitants of Columbia, most of whom had settled there only temporarily for protection, began rapidly to move to lands they had purchased further in the interior, and in this way a large majority of the members of the first church scattered, within a few years, over the Miami Valley and soon began to organize other churches in different neighborhoods. In 1795, a number were dismissed to unite with a church on the Kentucky side of the Ohio. In 1797, two other bodies were dismissed from the Columbia Church, one to form a church on the island, some eight miles up the Miami, and afterward called Little Miami Island Church and another to form a church on Carpenter’s Run, some ten miles directly north of Columbia. The meeting-house of this church was situated two miles west, of the present site of Montgomery, Hamilton County. Others were dismissed, who settled at Clear Creek, and built a
meeting-house a little north of the present site of Ridgeville, Warren County; at Turtle Creek, now Lebanon, and in the neighborhood of Little Prairie, now Middletown; and soon organized churches at each of these points. As early as 1804, a church was organized at Staunton, about one mile east of Troy, Miami County, and about seventy miles north of Columbia. The origin of all these churches can be traced to members of the Columbia Church, as they scattered themselves through the Miami Valley after the peace of 1795.
On the 2lst day of September, 1792, Elder Daniel Clark, before a licentiate from Whitely Church, Pennsylvania, was ordained at Columbia according to the forms of the Regular Baptist Church. Elders John Smith and Dr. John Gano, recently from New York City, and then settled in Kentucky, officiated at the ordination exercises, which were performed under the shade of some large trees on the bank of the Ohio River. This was the first ordination of a Protestant minister in all the territory of the Northwest.
Elder Clark remained connected with the Columbia Church as assistant of Elder Smith, who was assigned to preach a part of his time at Cincinnati, until the year 1795, when Eider Smith resigned the care of the Columbia Church and took charge of the Island Church. Elder Clark continued his labors with this church until
the fall of 1797, when he moved about thirty miles northeast, where were organized, first, Clear Creek, and soon after Turtle Creek (now Lebanon) Church. He supplied both with preaching several years, and was the only pastor of the Lebanon Church from its organization in 1798 until about 1829, when he became too feeble to preach. He died December 11, 1834, in the 90th year of his age.
In 1801, Elder Peter Smith, then recently from Georgia, was chosen pastor of the Columbia Church, and continued such until 1805, when he removed to Beaver Creek, some five miles west of Xenia, and organized and took charge of a church at that place, where he remained until his death, about 1812.
In the spring of 1801, there was a large addition to the Columbia Church under the pastoral labor of Elder Peter Smith, assisted by Elder John Smith. In the course of a few months nearly one hundred and fifty were received and baptized into the fellowship of the church. Among these converts was James Lyon, who has been for many years pastor of the same church, long since removed some two miles north of Columbia, and called Duck Creek Church; Elder Ezra Ferris was another, who, for more than forty years, lived and labored at Lawrenceburg, Indiana, and who died April 19, 1857; another of those then added to the church was
Hezekiah Stites, who has been pastor of a church called Bethel, Warren County, from its organization, in the year 1810, until the present time. To Elder Ferris I am indebted for many of the facts stated in connection with the first settlement and church at Columbia.
The early pastors of this first Baptist Church, and, indeed, the first regularly constituted church of any denomination of Christians in the whole Northwest Territory, may be stated in the order in which they succeeded each other, as follows: 1st. Rev. Stephen Gano, temporary pastor, who preached at Columbia during a part of the winter, 1789-90, and constituted said church. 2d. John Smith, 3d. Daniel Clark, associate pastors from 1790 to 1797. 4th. Peter Smith. 5th. William Jones. 6th. For a short time, John Clark; and 7th James Lyon, still living (1857).
In 1808, the place of worship of the first church was removed from Columbia to Duck Creek, about two miles north, and from that time has been called the Duck Creek Church. In 1816, this church, with seven others, to-wit: Little Miami, Clover Fork, Clough, Nine Mile, Union, or Indian Creek, Stone Lick, and East Fork Churches were dismissed, and formed the East Fork Association in which connection Duck Creek Church has ever since remained. Soon after the formation of the East Fork Association,
James Lyon was called as pastor of this church, and has remained pastor most of the time since. For a few years, B. F. Harmon has been the regular pastor, though Elder Lyon still preaches to the church a part of the time.
This church, from its first organization, has licensed and sent out a number of young men to preach the Gospel. Among the first was William Snodgrass who, at a very early day, went to the lower Mississippi country, then a Spanish province, and preached the Gospel, perhaps, for the first time, in the neighborhood of Natchez. Next perhaps, a David Jones, then very lately from Wales, and who afterward became eminently useful as a preacher, but died early at Philadelphia. Among others, by this church licensed to preach, may be added James Lyon, Dr. Ezra Ferris, Hezekiah Stites, and Thomas J. Price. Elders Lyon, Ferris, and Stites all united with the church in 1801, and all lived to preach the Gospel until April 19, l857, when Dr. Ferris was called to his rest, at Lawrenceburg, Indiana, where he had been pastor of a church for fifty years.
The spot on which the first house of worship of this church stood should be carefully preserved, not only as a memorial of the first planting of the Baptist cause in the Northwestern Territory, but of the ground on which so many Baptist preachers first proclaimed the Gospel message to the pioneers of the wilderness -- for in addition to the
pastors of this church whose names are above given, there were many early adventurers in the ministry who are remembered to have preached here to the delight and edification of the first settlers of Columbia. Among these were Dr. Samuel Jones, Chaplain in Wayne’s Army, and so long and favorably known at Philadelphia, Drs. Stephen and John Gano, Elders Joshua Carman and John Mason. The last was a brother-in-law of Elder John Smith, and often preached at Columbia, and, for a time, about 1804, supplied the church.
The house of worship of the Columbia Church, erected in 1792, and finished in the next spring, was the first Protestant meeting-house in the Northwestern Territory. It stood on a little eminence on the north side of Columbia where may still be seen, on the east side of the Little Miami Railroad, a pile of rocks and a number of ancient graves, some of which are inclosed [sic] by decayed palings, but most, only discernible by the little tumuli of earth which mark the resting place of many of the old pioneers. The house itself was torn or blown down about 1835. A drawing of this house, as it appeared in 1830, taken from the American Pioneer, forms the frontispiece to this sketch.
This church at Columbia was the first regularly organized Protestant Church in the Northwestern Territory. Daniel Story, it is true, had preached
at Marietta, as an evangelist, from the spring of 1789, but the first church organized at Marietta was not founded until 1796.* At Cincinnati there was a Presbyterian Church, but its regular organization did not take place for at least twelve months after the church at Columbia.
* American Pioneer, Vol. I., pp. 85-86.
Organization of the Miami Association
On the 23d of September, 1797, the following named Baptist brethren, principally from the four churches then organized, viz.: Columbia, Miami Island, Carpenter's Run, and Clear Creek, met in conference at Columbia, viz.: JAMES SUTTON, PETER SMITH, DANIEL CLARK, JOHN SMITH, MOSES HUTCHINS, John Beasley, Abner Garrard, Ebenezer Osborn, David Davis, Hercules Tinner, William Milner, Joseph Frazee, Richard Ayres, Robert McKinney, David Snodgrass, John Beal, Abraham Blue, Francis Dunlevy, William Knight, William Buckley, Ross Crossley, Evan Bain, Lewis Jennings, Charles Reynolds, Class Thompson, Samuel Belville, John Ferris, Elijah Stites, JOSHUA CARMAN, and JOSIAH DODGE. The two last then lived in Kentucky.
The ministers are designated by capitals [bold] from my own recollection and information – members in small [regular] capitals. David Snodgrass, named among these pioneers, as has been before stated, was about this time licensed by the Columbia Church,
with the view of his going into a desolate place in the South, Natchez probably, to preach the Gospel; but what became of him is not known.
At this conference, John Smith was chosen Moderator, and David Snodgrass, Clerk; and, after consultation, it was resolved, “That the churches in this Western Territory, and those adjacent, of the Baptist order, should meet at the Baptist Meeting-house, in Columbia. on the first Saturday of November, ensuing.”
Pursuant to this resolution, on Saturday, the 4th of November, 1797, all the above named Baptist members of the above churches, with the addition of JOHN MASON, John Buckley, Bambo Harris, John McGrue, Levi Jennings, Henry Tucker, William Buel, Morris Osborn, Jonathan Garrard, and Thomas Shields, met at Columbia. After electing the same moderator and clerk, it was resolved, That arrangements be made to form an association and a Committee consisting of PETER SMITH, JOHN MASON, JAMES SUTTON, RICHARD AYERS, WILLIAM Milner, and JOHN SMITH, was appointed to "draw up genera1 principles of faith, practice, and decorum, to be laid before the several churches for their inspection, as the basis of an association," and an associational meeting was appointed to be held at Columbia, on Saturday before the first Sabbath of June, 1798. On that day, delegates met at Columbia from the four churches above named,
but the number of members is not given -- of either church. The committee appointed to draw up general principles of faith, practice, etc., was modified -- the first committee having never met -- and JOHN SMITH and PETER SMITH, were chosen from Columbia Church, WILLIAM MILNER, from Miami Island, Richard Ayres, for Carpenter's Run, and James Sutton, for Clear Creek, to constitute said committee. Another association was appointed, and met on the 20th of October, 1798, with the Miami Island Church. At this association the same churches were represented, but no statistics given of members, JOHN CORBLY was chosen Moderator, and David Snodgrass, Clerk.
Rules of order and decorum, for the government of the Miami Association, appear to have been adopted at this meeting, and were ordered to be recorded at the beginning of the association records. Some of these it may be proper to copy here as showing the views of the pioneer Baptists, as to the object and sphere of associated action, and the independence of churches. The 9th rule provides, that
"Every request for advice, or query, sent from any church in the union, is to he read and put to vote and if carried, shall be investigated; provided, always, those be first considered which affect the union of churches.
10. "But no query shall be received by the association except inserted in a letter from some
particular church, after having first been debated in the church from whence it came.
13. "No vote or advice is to affect the independence of churches.
14. "Churches to be received or excluded at the option of two-thirds, of a majority."
At the next meeting of the Miami Association, at Columbia, Friday, September 6, 1799, six churches were represented and reported their members respectively, as follows: Columbia, 35; Miami Island, 62; Carpenter's Run, 32; Clear Creek, 20; Middle Run, 15; Straight Creek, 21; Total, 185.
The circular letter of this year is wholly occupied in urging upon the members the duty of supporting pastors in their arduous duty of preaching the Gospel. "While," says the letter, "the laborers are few, and these few have their difficulties; we hope, dear brethren, you will relieve them as you have ability. Remember these are the ministers and servants of the Most High God, who show unto you the way of salvation; and if they sow unto you spiritual things, you ought not to be backward in making them partakers of your temporal and earthly things. We advise you to read 1st Cor., 9th chapter, and you will plainly see a great Christian duty, and they who neglect it, may as well neglect any other duty. Besides, how can you pray the Lord of the harvest to send more 1aborers into the harvest,
when those now in His employ are neglected to the distress of their common circumstances as men." These are but extracts from this letter, which, throughout, makes a strong appeal to members of churches for a faithful discharge of their obligations to contribute liberally to the ministers of the Gospel.
This association appointed quarterly meetings to be held at various destitute places, and designated the preachers who should attend each. This had been done, to some extent, from their first organization, and continued to be practiced for many years. It was an essential arrangement for a new country, and, doubtless, might still be practiced with good results. Dense as our population is, there are vast numbers of citizens of every county in the state without any stated preaching. Even in the oldest settlements, nearly one-half of the people are without any regular religious meetings, and from a knowledge of the state of things in the Miami Valley, I think there is as large a portion of the people now without preaching as at any former period. Itinerancy in preaching is, in a great measure, given up even by our Methodist brethren in the older settlements. These associational appointments among Baptists for destitute neighborhoods have been long discontinued, and there is no organization in any religious denomination by which these places are reached. In early times, ministers
frequently visited such places, and preached in private houses in cold weather, and in warm weather in the woods; but now private houses are not open, and in whole neighborhoods there is not interest enough on the subject of religion to invite preaching among them, even where there are school-houses or other convenient places to hold such meetings. if but one or two could be found in each neighborhood of our thickly settled portions of the state who would invite preaching among them, even occasionally, it would soon be attended with most beneficial results. A taste, a desire for the preached word would soon be created which would never be satisfied until permanent arrangements were made for its constant supply.
I have before referred to the organization and location of Miami Island and Carpenter's Run Church. This year, 1799, the three following churches were added: Clear Creek, in the neighborhood of the present Ridgeville, Warren County, and of which Turtle Creek (now Lebanon Church) was a branch, Middle Run, some five miles north-east of Clear Creek, now in the south part of Greene County, and Straight Creek, now in Brown County. Clear Creek lost its identity from about the time of the division in the churches on the missionary question, in 1836. Middle Run is now united with the anti-mission association, and Straight Creek, a few years after, was dismissed
to unite with Scioto Association. Miami Island Church seems to have changed its name to Little Miami and afterward, Miami, by which it is still known.
At Miami Island, John Smith, who had a mill at that point on the Miami, and lived there for a time, served as pastor from 1802 until 1804, and in 1807, Moses Frazee became pastor, and continued such until the church was dismissed, with seven others, to form the East Fork Association, in 1816.
The association, in 1800, met at Turtle Creek (now Lebanon), then a branch of Clear Creek Church. Four new churches were added, viz.: Fairfield, Sugar Creek, Beaver Creek, and Elk Creek. The first was located some four miles north of Hamilton, Butler County. Soon after the division, in 1836, it united with the anti-mission party, and since 1854, has not been represented in their association. It has, therefore, probably lost its visibility. Elk Creek was first located on the creek of that name a little west of Trenton, in Butler County, but, afterward, their meeting-house was built in the latter named place, then, and for many years afterward, the residence of Elder Stephen Gard, who was pastor of the church with the exception of about two years of absence, until his death, about 1840. Sugar Creek was at Centerville, Montgomery County, and still exists; and Beaver Creek was
situated near the line between Montgomery and Greene, on a creek of that name. This was the residence of Elder Peter Smith from 1805, and he officiated as pastor until his death, about 1812. It had no representation in the association after 1811.
The circular letter of this year, in urging upon the churches and members the proper and scriptural observance of the Sabbath, as divinely instituted for a day of rest from all secular labor, and for religious worship and meditation, says: "The Sabbath is useful to our spiritual and heavenly comforts. How great the happiness of the Christian to be withdrawn from worldly cares and employments that he may rest with God, and while at on earth have a pledge and foretaste of heaven.["]
The association this year adopted the following resolution, which will account for the custom of Western Ohio and Indiana in designating their preachers Elders.
"Resolved that in future, the title of Reverend, as applied to ministers, be laid aside, and that of Elder be substituted in its place."
The association, in 180l, was held at Carpenter's Run. Three new churches presented letters and delegates, viz.: Bethlehem, Prairie, sometimes called Little Prairie and Poplar Fork. Prairie has since become Middletown, Butler County. Poplar Fork was situated in Clermont County, near
Williamsburg, and still exists in connection with the anti-mission Baptists. Bethlehem Church was in Brown County, as since organized.
The association now consisted of 13 churches, and contained 467 members; of whom 131 had been baptized during the associational year.
The circular letter of this year exhorted the churches to strict Gospel discipline, urging them "to be careful not to let sin rest upon a brother." A resolution was also adopted, requesting "each church and congregation to make a collection for the benevolent purpose of sending missionaries to instruct the native Indians," and directing "that the money be paid to the treasurer, to be at the disposel [sic] of the association."
In 1802, the association met with the Columbia Church at Duck Creek Meeting-house, and in 1803, with the Sugar Creek Church. Eight churches had been added since l80, viz.: Pleasant Run, about six miles below Hamilton, near the south line of Butler County, which, in 1836, went with the anti-missionary division but was dissolved, or lost its visibility about 1852. Nine Mile, in Clermont County, which soon after united with the East Fork Association. Old Chillicothe, which only appears in the minutes up to 1805. It was located at a place by that name about five miles northwest of the present city of Chillicothe. As the Scioto Association was organized this year, it, no doubt, united with that
association. Messengers from this association were received by the Miami Association that year (l805), with a letter, and Elder John Mason appointed to reply to it. Turtle Creek, also, now Lebanon, which had before been a branch of Clear Creek was organized in 1803, into a distinct church, and united with the association. Dry Fork, of White Water, was another of these new churches. It was in the northwest corner of Hamilton County; in 1836, it united with the anti-mission association, and seems to have lost its visibility since 1853. Caesar's Creek Church was also added, and was situated on the head waters of Caesar's Creek, some seven miles east of Xenia, and still retains its name and existence. For many years this church enjoyed the pastoral labors of Elder William Sutton, who still lives (1857), at an advanced age, though he has been measurably lost to the church by a partial loss of his sight for several years.
In 1804, three new churches were added, Muddy Creek, in Warren County, which still exists, and "the church below the mouth of Mill Creek." The later seems to have had but a short existence, as it does not again appear in the minutes -- Staunton Church was also received this year. Staunton Church was the oldest town in Miami County, situated about a mile nearly east of the present sire of Troy, and after the location of the seat of justice at Troy, Staunton went down. A
church on Lost Creek, a little east, and at Troy west, long since absorbed the members of the Staunton Church. But lately this church has worshiped at Cassville, a point between Staunton and the old Lost Creek Church. At the meeting of the association of this year, a letter and messengers were received from the North Bend Association, Kentucky, requesting correspondence, but this was declined, and a letter and messenger sent to them to inform them of the reasons for refusing correspondence. Though the minutes do not state the reasons, they were, doubtless, founded on the practice of slavery. On this account, there never was any regular correspondence between the Miami Association and any others in the Slave States, with the exception of a temporary correspondence with a small body of anti-slavery Baptists in Nelson County, Ky. These, however, could not live in the midst of slavery, and were soon dispersed and settled in different parts of the Northwestern Territory. A few years afterwards, in 1807, in answer to a question from a church, the association advised that caution be used in admitting among them those who held the sentiment and practice of hereditary slavery.
We have now passed through six associational meetings, during as many years, in which period the churches had been increased in the Miami Valley from 4 to 21, and the membership from 185, in 1799, to 656, in l805. Early in this period,
but the precise time can not be ascertained, the association adopted articles of faith, which are found prefixed to the first records on a separate sheet, and which are copied below.
1. We believe that the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are the Word of God and only rule of faith and practice.
2. We believe there is one only living and true God, and that there are three persons in the Godhead -- the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost -- which three are one of the same substance, equal in power and glory.
3. We believe that God created our first parents upright, yet they did not long abide in that honor; but did willfully transgress the law of creation in eating the forbidden fruit, and by their sinful rebellion, they fell from their original righteousness and communion with God; and all we in them become dead in sin and wholly defiled in all our faculties, both mental and bodily; our first parents being the root, and by God’s appointment standing in the place of all mankind; their corrupt nature was conveyed to all their posterity -- so that we are all by nature children of wrath, servants of sin, subjects of death, and misery, temporal and eternal. By this original corruption we are wholly indisposed to good and prone to evil.
4. We believe that before the foundation of the world God did elect a certain number of the
human race to everlasting life and salvation, and, in pursuance of this gracious design, did make a covenant of grace and peace with his Son Jesus Christ, on behalf of those persons who were committed to his care, with all spiritual blessings.
5. We believe that Jesus Christ, being from everlasting the mediator of the new covenant, did engage to be the surety of his people and in fullness of time, really assumed human nature – in which nature he really suffered and died as their substitute, in their room and stead, whereby he made all that satisfaction for their sins which the law and justice of God required, as well as procured all those blessings which are needful both for time and eternity.
6. We believe that the eternal redemption Christ obtained by the shedding of his blood is special and particular, that is to say, it was only intended for the elect of God or sheep of Christ, as they only enjoy the special and peculiar benefits of it.
7. We believe that the justification of God’s elect is only by the righteousness of Christ imputed to them without the consideration of any works done by them, and that the full and free pardon of all their sins, past, present, and to come, is only through the blood of Christ according to the riches of his grace.
8. We believe that faith, conversion, regeneration,
and sanctification are not acts of man's free will and power, but of the efficacious grace of God.
9. We believe that a full assurance of faith is attainable in this life, and that it is a duty highly incumbent to labor after it with all diligence; though we by no means look upon assurance to be of the essence of faith, but one of the consequences and delightful effects of it.
10. We believe that all those who are chosen by the Father, redeemed by the Son, and sanctified by the Holy Ghost, shall certainly and finally persevere to the end, so that none of them shall perish, but have eternal life.
11. We believe that Baptism and the Lord’s Supper are ordinances of Christ to be continued till his second coming, and that the former is requisite to the latter, viz.: that those only are to be admitted into the communion of the church, who upon profession of faith have been baptized, by immersion, in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
12. We believe the Lord’s day is to be set apart for holy purposes -- that it is our duty to assemble together on that day for the public worship of God, by prayer, giving of thanks, preaching, hearing the Word of God, and singing psalms, hymns and spiritual songs.
13. We believe there will be a resurrection of the dead, both of just and unjust, and that
Christ will come a second time to judge both quick and dead -- to receive the righteous to everlasting happiness, and sentence the wicked to punishment of the same duration.
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