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      Formation of the Home Missionary Auxiliary - Mr. Roe - Mr. Pulsford - Mr. Carrick - Mr. Bilson - Whitehaven - Mr. Pulsford - Mrs. Douglas - Mr. William Angus - Mr. Joseph Thompson - Mr. H. Angus - Mr. H. B. Angus - Mr. Brown - Mr. Sneath - Broomhaugh - Separation of Rowley and Broomley - Mr. Macgowan - Mr. Lewis - Miss H. E. Fenwick - Ford Forge - New Bridge-street - Sunderland - Monk-wearmouth - Newcastle - Mr. Christopherson - South Shields - North Shields - Mr. Garthorn - Mr. Pengilly's Resignation - Mr. Sample's Recognition - Prospect of Bicentenary of 1852 - Lancashire and Cumberland - Tabular Views - Concluding Remarks.

      1839. - The year 1839 was, in the history of the Baptist churches in the North of England, a kind of era, owing to the formation of an Auxiliary to the Baptist Home Missionary Society. Mr. Roe, the secretary of that society, from his having himself in former years been resident in the North, was well acquainted with the character of the churches, and was solicitous for their farther establishment and extension. With this view he engaged Mr. Thomas Pulsford of Great Torrington, Devonshire, to become an Evangelist in these northern counties; and he also personally visited the associated ministers this year, at their annual meeting. The result was, the formation of the Auxiliary alluded to, which has been materially helpful in sustaining and enlarging the churches ever since.

      Mr. Pulsford began his operations, as Evangelist of the North, by forming a church of twenty-three

members at Carlisle, on the 16th of June, this year. He continued there about two months, and baptized and added other twelve persons. Mr. Pulsford visited, in succession, a number of the churches; holding prayer meetings at five o'clock every morning, and preaching in the evening, as also three times on the Lord's day. His labours were indefatigable; and his success, in exciting attention, and in arousing careless sinners and the torpid among professors, was remarkable. Considerable numbers were added to the churches at Bedale, Stockton, Hamsterley, Middleton, Wolsingham, North Shields, and Newcastle, before the termination of the year 1839.

      On the 18th September, this year, Mr. J. D. Carrick was ordained over [at] the church at North Shields. Mr. Douglas stated the nature of a Christian church; Mr. Sample asked the usual questions; Mr. Paterson, of Glasgow, gave the charge; and Mr. Pulsford preached to the church. Two deacons were also ordained.

      1840. - Mr. Bilson, formerly an Independent minister at North Shields, was baptized at Middleton, Teesdale, this year, during the association; at which Messrs. Roe and Barnes (then of Thrapstone) attended. Mr. Bilson was appointed by the Home Mission to labour at Whitehaven; and there, for some time, he enjoyed considerable success.*
      * It has been mentioned that Mr. Bowser, of Sunderland, settled at Whitehaven in 1780; he left in 1781. Mr. Wm. Graham was ordained in 1787, but sometime after adopted the views held by the Baptists in Scotland, respecting weekly communion, the exhortations of the brethren, &c. This caused a division. Mr. Graham and his people withdrew from the chapel, and those who remained were destitute of a pastor, when in 1807, Mr. George Jamieson, who succeeded Mr. Graham, was invited to minister likewise to them, and thus the two parties were re-united. Mr. Jamieson was connected with the Messrs. Haldane of Edinburgh, and was a very pious man. He remained at Whitehaven

      This year Mr. Pulsford again visited several of the churches, particularly Broomley, Rowley, Hamsterley and Bedale, and many more members were added to them. At Wolsingham the church was formed anew, and Mr. Macgowan, who had for some time been at the Forest, became their minister. At Stockton the Baptist chapel was considerably enlarged, and opened December 25th, 1840; Messrs. Giles of Leeds, and Pulsford, officiating on the occasion. Mr. Pulsford soon after went to evangelize in the more southern parts of the kingdom.

      1841. - On 31st March, this year, Mrs. Douglas, of Hamsterley, died, aged 44. She was the daughter of Mr. James Jopling, late deacon of the church there. She felt much on the first appearance of death, on account of her husband and family; but during the eighteen months of her affliction she became quite resigned, and died calmly, supported by the hope of the Gospel.

      On June 14th, this year, Mr. William Angus, deacon of the church at Broomley, &c., entered on his eternal rest, aged 44. He had been in life distinguished alike for his piety, prayerfulness, good sense, activity, and straightforward consistency of character. His last affliction was short, but heavy. In his lucid intervals he was, however, not only the subject of great peace, but of unspeakable joy. His chief anxiety was about the salvation of his friends and servants. He expressed a wish that he could take his aged mother to heaven along with himself. She was then in her usual health, though feeble; but that day week on which his body had been consigned to the grave, hers was laid beside him.
only three or four years. Mr. James Bigland, one of the deacons, conducted the worship for some years after he left; and to him succeeded Mr. John Kitchen. The church was in a very depressed condition when visited by Mr. Bilson, in 1840.

She died with a calm dependance on that Saviour whom she had known, loved, and served from early life.

      Mr. Joseph Thompson, of Slaley, died also, this year. He was a member of the church at Rowley, and had been a useful individual for many years. When he died, he left nearly all his little property to religious purposes. Among other endowments, he left fifty pounds for the support of the minister of the church with which he had been connected.

      1842. - On the 25th of February, this year, the church at New Court, Newcastle, lost one of its deacons, Mr. Henry Angus, senior. The deceased was born at the renowned Juniper-Dye-House, and was grandson of Mr. W. Angus, brother-in-law to Mr. Christopher Hall. He was brought under the influence of divine truth in his 23rd year, and baptized by Mr. Pengilly. In 1816, he united with those who went to worship at the Carpenters' Hall; and subsequently became a deacon of the church, of which his relative, Mr. Sample, became the pastor. For several years his health had much declined, and after struggling with a variety of disease, he gradually sunk into the arms of death. But few expressions escaped his lips during his last affliction, but enough to assure his friends and connexions that his end was peace. He was in the fifty-seventh year of his age.

      We cannot avoid taking particular notice of the death of one of the young members of the church at Broomley this year, owing to the singularity of the case, and as a stimulus to the younger members of our churches in general. This young person was Mr. Henry Blacket Angus, youngest son of Mrs. Angus, of Broomley, descended alike from Henry Angus, of the Raw House, and Henry Blacket, of Bitchburn. He had been baptized and added to the church, with some other of his

relatives, friends, and neighbours, during one of the visitations of Mr. Pulsford, in 1840.

      Young Henry possessed solid, if not brilliant, mental qualities. His education and information were respectable, his temper retiring, and his habits and manners were of the simple character, and lying at the greatest possible remove from ostentation. We have therefore in these circumstances, independently of the solemnity of his situation, a sufficient guarantee for the genuineness the sincerity, and soundness of the expressions he uttered on his dying bed, in the prospect of eternity.

      Being of a delicate constitution, the subject of this brief memorial sometimes, like other invalids, took a journey from home, to re-invigorate his frame. He did so in the spring of 1842, but failed in the desired object. In a fortnight after his return, his complaint began to assume an alarming aspect. He was, however, in a very placid frame of mind, and said, "think I shall not get better this time." He was asked if he was afraid to die. He replied, "No; I know in whom I have believed." From the 21st to the 29th of May, the day on which he died, he was confined to his room, and in the intervening time was enabled to give one of those remarkable exhibitions of Christian triumph in death, which are, at least occasionally, afforded to the devoted children of God.

      From the 21st he grew rapidly worse, but his relatives were cheered by seeing his spiritual strength renewed in proportion to the decay of his bodily vigour. "He had been always cheerful, but now, day after day," writes his sister, " his dear countenance brightened in its expression and became that of joy unspeakable? and his confidence in his dear Redeemer was great, until its language was that of full assurance." On Monday night, the 23rd, he was very ill, and taking his eldest brother around the neck, he said,

"Though painful at present, 'twill cease before long,
And then, Oh how pleasant the conqueror's song."

      On Tuesday morning, the bleeding from his lungs had increased. He said, "I am taking down pin by pin;" and to his

sister he said, with tender affection, "Oh S____ pray that my faith and patience may continue to the end. I always loved you all, but you are dear to me now." On Wednesday and Thursday he was much affected with feverish drowsiness, which rather distressed his mind. On Friday he wished his sister to ascertain distinctly the doctor's opinion of his case, She did so; and found that he feared the worst, unless a speedy change took place. When told this, he looked serious for a few minutes, and then turning to his sister, said, "I hope I have nothing to do but to die; and there is dying grace for dying time. I feel a little clinging to earth, which is painful; but you must pray, and I hope it will be taken away." After this, his countenance assumed the expression of great joy; and observing his widowed sister, of Hindley, come into the room, he held out his hand, and said, "I shall soon be with your dear William, singing, the praises of redeeming love."* He then spoke to all present with affectionate faithfulness, and often repeated the beautiful lines, "Oh glorious hope; Oh blessed hope," &c.; adding, "Let us all be sure that we meet in heaven." He strove also to cheer his mother, by saying, "You will not be long behind me. Your threescore and ten years are nearly over. You must not doubt. You cannot tell what kind offices I may perform for you." He then inquired if she thought he could know the disembodied spirit of his father, and hoped he might; "but, perhaps" said he, "I shall be like the old man who thought he would never take his eyes off his Saviour for the first thousand years he was in heaven."

      On the afternoon of Friday, he was filled with unutterable joy, yet giving a faint utterance of his deep emotions, in the following expressions: "Glory to the Eternal Father! Glory to the dear Redeemer! Glory to the Holy Spirit, who has led and guided me!," Speaking of the Saviour, he raised himself, and said, "He has redeemed me from eternal death! Oh what a glorious passage is that, 1st John iii., ' Beloved, now are we the sons of God,' &c. Oh, to be like perfection," said he, "think of that."

'O glorious hour! bless'd abode!
I shall be near, and like my God.'" &c.
He also often said, "I feel it to be really true, that
'Jesus can make a dying bed
Feel soft as downy pillows are.'" &c.
* This excellent person has since rejoined both. She died in Aug. 1845.
When requested not to exhaust himself by speaking, he replied, "I must praise while I have breath."

      During the night he slept, and spoke but little. By a short slumber he was, however, somewhat refreshed, and awoke on the Saturday morning full of love, joy, and deep anxiety for the salvation of all around him. This anxiety was habitual in reference to his former companions. To one of these he said, "We have been companions here, let us be companions in heaven;" and when any of these were at a distance from him, he sent messages to them to the same effect. He now disposed of a few remembrancers to the dear relatives and friends he was about to leave, for a time, in the vale below; and to his beloved minister he gave texts to improve his early death. In the selection of these, Isaiah iv. 6, and 2 Corinthians vi. 2, we still see his deep anxiety for the salvation of sinners. To his brother W. he said, "It maybe selfish, but I wish to have some of your thoughts when I am gone." He then described minutely part of a field, where he had had peculiarly spiritual enjoyment, while following the plough. "When you see that spot," said he, "think of me."

      About ten o'clock in the forenoon he wished a hymn to be sung, and then said, "I wish you all except one to stay by me to kneel around the room, and silently pray for me. Prayer moves the hand that moves the world. Your prayers will ascend, as a cloud of incense, before the mercy-seat. I long to pray away my soul, and to be carried to my Father's bosom. What a sweet idea, to be carried to my Father's bosom." It was a season of great happiness to him, and he often requested us to do so afterwards. He was also very grateful to hear of a prayer meeting, by a few of the female members in the chapel, on his behalf. At eleven o'clock he grew worse, and was slightly convulsed. His appearance now altered, and his countenance began to assume the hue of death, although it never lost that sweet expression of dignified holy joy which it had gradually put on. When asked if the Saviour was near to him, "Yes," he replied, "close by me; I lean upon him, - Gracious King! My pains of death are strong; but the sting is taken away.

      Towards evening he was a little relieved, and seeing his sister anxiously watching him, he called her, and said, "S____ I want you to know what a rest this is. I know I look strange; it is just the straggle between nature and death; but," again he said

"Jesus can make a dying bed," &c. He also often said, "Weep not for me. I am the best off
'Earth is a desert drear,
Heaven is my home.'
      "I long to fly away, and he at rest; but desire to be passive in my Father's hands. His time and his way are always best." He was delighted with the thought that he should be employed in doing the will of God in heaven, and thus be like the Redeemer, whose meat and drink it was to do and suffer his Father's will.

      In the evening he was easier; and a little before four o'clock, Sabbath morning, he dozed awhile, and then awoke, to use his own expression, "in the mast extatic joy." "I cannot tell how it is," said he, with a look of ineffable benignity, "but I cannot describe the happiness I feel." And when his aged mother, and other relatives, were called up, by his desire, he laboured to find language to convey some idea of his feelings; but he said, "it was in vain. I cannot tell you the thousandth, no, not the millionth part of what I feel. Rivers, seas, oceans, yea, mountains of joy. My cup is full, and runneth over." His brother observed, "It was a foretaste of heaven." "If this be the foretaste," he replied, "I don't know what the reality will be." He continued in this state for some time, requesting prayer to be continued for him; but at seven o'clock, owing to his difficulty in breathing, he seemed to be going. He, however, revived a little, and said to a young relative, after kissing him affectionately, "Five minutes ago I thought I was just gone, but it seems I have been called back to speak to you. I am going to heaven, and I want you to follow me." When he bade him farewell, he said, with great emotion, "Oh, don't let it be for ever."

      Being asked about his breakfast, he said, "I shall breakfast in heaven." He often said, "This cannot be dying." The church of which he was a member were to commemorate the Saviour's death that forenoon. He observed, "I shall sit down at a different table than yours to-day. I shall drink new wine in my Father's kingdom." He desired his pastor to induce the young members of the church to work much for the Saviour. In the morning he had fainting fits, and seemed to be almost gone. To his sister, while bathing his temples, he said, "Is it not strange I like you to use means to revive me, and yet I long to be at home." He was very importunate this morning with two relatives about their salvation. He fell, after this, into an uneasy

slumber, and said, when he awoke, he had been disturbed by the fear of dying twice. He was reminded, that it might be an effort of the great enemy to annoy him. Being asked if he felt the Saviour precious, he said, "I find him to be a great rock."

      Between eleven and twelve o'clock, fixing his eyes on the window, he asked if the sun shone particularly bright. He was told it did not. He still looked earnestly, and was asked, if he saw something. He said, "I see a glorious light it is most glorious, but it is temporalized to my bodily eyes;" and he wished the windows to be darkened. His sister H_____, at this time, went and kissed him. He looked sweetly at her, and said, "Peace, peace, peace is flowing like a river;" and again, "I hear the most delightful music." Then shortly after, "I hear the most delightful instruments."

      "Just then," writes his sister, "I took to him some tea, which had been prepared for him; he said, 'you must wait awhile.' Then fixing his eyes on the top of the bed, he gazed intently for some time, then raised himself, and looked earnestly towards the door, as if he saw something, till his head sunk on its pillow. He breathed then heavily, but not painfully, for about twenty minutes. We thought he was gone, and G______ kissed him, saying, 'Farewell dear Henry;' but he turned his eye to him, as if conscious of what was passing, heaved two or three gentle sighs, and then his emancipated spirit fled away, to the mansions of eternal bliss and glory prepared for him." He died 29th May, 1842, aged 23.

      On the 26th of August, 1842, died also, Mr. George Brown, pastor of the church, South Shields. He was born at Goodrich, Herefordshire, and was brought to know the Lord in his twentieth year. He was soon after called to the ministry, and ordained at Kington, in his native county, where he continued six years, and afterwards, other three years, at Sabden, Lancashire. He came to Shields in 1822, and there continued, under varying circumstances, till within a few months of his death, when he resigned the pastorate, being rendered incapacitated for public service, from the increase of a nervous affection, which, though he possessed a powerful body and vigorous mind, had cleaved to him through life, and greatly impaired his usefulness. The death of

Mrs. Brown, in 1835, also greatly aggravated his chronic malady. He, was, notwithstanding, a useful preacher, and much respected by his people. Mr. Sneath, formerly of Brough, succeeded him in the pastoral charge, in October, 1841.

      1843. - On the 16th of March, this year, a new chapel was opened at Broomhaugh, near Hexham. Mr. Douglas offered the dedicatory prayer; Mr. Sample preached in the forenoon, and Mr. Roe preached in the evening. Messrs. Pengilly and Roe preached on the following Lord's day, when the collections and subscriptions cleared the cost of the chapel, estimated at L146. The chapel is fitted to hold two hundred persons, and stands in front of the Machpelah - the burying-ground of the Angus family.

      The section of the ancient church, lying between the Tyne and the Wear, which had separated from the church at Hamsterley, in 1785, now agreed, for the benefit of the neighbourhood, to divide itself once more; the northern part, at Broomley and Broomhaugh, to be under the care of one pastor, and the southern portion to be under another, at Rowley and Shotley-field. Mr. Macgowan being invited to become pastor of this latter portion, was ordained 23rd of August, 1843. Messrs. Pengilly, Douglas, Sample, and Fisher officiated on the occasion. Mr. Lewis, lately of Hackney, on Mr. Macgowan leaving Wolsingham, undertook the charge of the cause there.

      1844. - On the 15th of March, this year, died Miss Hannah Eliza Fenwick, third daughter of John Fenwick, Esq., Newcastle. This young lady was connected, together with her parents and most of their family, with, the church at New Court, under the ministry of Mr. Sample. She had been piously educated, and was early brought to know the Saviour of the guilty. She had a

feeble body, but an ardent, temperament, which she evinced in the possession of a strong desire to go out to Fernando-Po, Africa, as a missionary. From the feebleness of her frame, and other considerations, the idea was over-ruled; but she then devoted her energies more than ever to the benefit of the rising generation. She was thus employed when her Heavenly Master called her to himself. On Thursday evening, she taught her Bible class, of girls, and on Friday morning she was with God. Her grave was that of the hero who dies on the field of battle. Let the young females, in our churches, be encouraged by her example, to devote life, vigour, and influence to the glory of God, and the good of their fellow immortals.

      This year, we find that the church at Ford Forge, near to Flodden Field, had had a chapel lately built, and had several preaching stations. Mr. Thomas Black, the youngest son of Mr. John Black, who had commenced the cause about the beginning of the nineteenth century, is now pastor, assisted by Messrs. Bees and Brother stone. Mr. Black's eldest brother, Mr. John Black, was called to the pastoral office, in 1807; but, to the regret of all that knew him, died the following year. His brother Robert was then invited to succeed him, which he did, but died in 1809. Mr. Walter Oliver was then called to assist Mr. Dodds, who had been co-pastor with the Messrs. Black. For the sake of convenience, the church, at this time, divided part worshipping at Allendean, and part at Ford Forge. Owing to this arrangement, Mr. Black, senior, was called to the pastoral office along with Mr. Stevenson, who soon after died. Sometime after this, Mr. Thomas Black united with his father in the eldership, and the good old man, after ministering himself, for sometime, and seeing three of his beloved sons engaged along with

himself, in the same holy and useful employment, ended his days, full of years and honours of the purest kind. He died in his seventy-ninth year.

      In 1844, also, the church meeting in the Weavers' Tower, had their number of members 102, a Sunday School of 200 children, and several preaching stations in the neighbourhood of their new chapel, and 300 families supplied with tracts on the loan system. The new chapel is situated in New Bridge-street. It is adapted to hold 300 persons, has two vestries, and cost about L1250. It was opened April l7th, 1840, by Mr. Kirkwood, of Berwick, and Mr. Clarke, now of Fernando-Po. At that time, the church had only forty members, but they have increased since, by different means, to the number stated above.

      Of the other unassociated churches in the North, we should have been glad to have given some account, however slight, but we are not able, for want of information applied for, but not received. We have given some account already, of the origin of the church in Sans-street, Sunderland; but we are unable to give many further details. All we can say is, that the cause has been, for many years, under the guidance of Mr. Alexander Wilson, in company, till lately, with a very valuable assistant, Mr. Cormack, who died about two years ago. Of Mr. Wilson, we could say many things, did propriety allow. We are not certain of the number of years he has been connected with this church, but they cannot have been few, as his head has now become bleached, while, like Timothy, he has through many a year, "naturally cared for their state." He has, we understand, during bygone years, met with many trials and disappointments, in carrying on the good work; but, having received help of God, he continues to the present day.* Several small secessions have taken
* He died Jan. 3, 1846, aged 69, as this sheet was passing through the press.

place, from this church, which eventually may prove useful to the town of Sunderland. The new cause at Maling's Rig, under the care of Mr. Kneebon, though only hegun about two years ago, has already produced good fruit. It numbered upwards of sixty members about twelve months since; but has since, from circumstances, been rather reduced. May its reduction resemble the small but select, and intrepid army of Gideon.

      At Monkwearmouth there had been a Baptist cause in the early part of the present century. Mr. Watts, for some years, was its minister; but, owing to certain untoward circumstances, he left; and preached at Houghton-le-spring, for some time, and then went to Hull. The cause at Monkwearmouth continued in abeyance, for some years; and owing to a new arrangement of the buildings in the town, the old chapel was taken down: but Sir Hedworth Williamson granted a site for a new one, in a very eligible situation. A chapel was accordingly built, in 1838. Owing, however, to the want of a stated and efficient ministry, the cause has not, as yet, progressed to the extent desirable. Present appearances, however, under their new minister, Mr. M'Cree, are, on the whole, favourable.

      In Newcastle, also, there are, besides those already, mentioned, some smaller communities, which, like branches from a parent stem, may, perhaps in the course of years, arise, acquire strength, and at length throw out other offshoots; and thus prove, in different localities of this growing town, extensively useful in advancing the present and eternal happiness of men.

      On the 4th June, 1844, Mr. Henry Christopherson was ordained co-pastor with Mr. Sample, over the church at New Court, Newcastle. Mr. Acworth, of Horton college, described the nature of a Christian church; and Dr. Raffles, of Liverpool, gave the charge, and preached to the people.

      In the latter part of this year, several interesting meetings were held at South Shields; Mr. Roe, from Birmingham, attending, with a view to the complete liquidation of their debt. This desirable object was finally gained. By the kind assistance of many friends, the debt, which amounted to L620, was fully cleared. The cause here is under the energetic guidance of Mr. Sneath, and the church is, at present, in a lively and interesting condition.

      1845. - In the early part of this year, steps were taken by the church at North Shields, to erect a new chapel. They succeeded in obtaining among themselves an amount of subscriptions, which warranted their proceeding to apply for assistance in other quarters. This application was kindly received, in different quarters; and the result is, a neat chapel is now in progress, and is expected to be opened for public worship, in a few months. It is proposed that the old chapel shall be devoted to two day schools. The cause in this town, under Mr. Carrick, is also, at present, in a very healthy state.

      On the 28th September, this year, died, Mr. Michael Garthorn, of Emshill, aged seventy-one. This gentleman has been already referred to, in the course of our narrative, as descended from an ancient family in the neighbourhood of Hamsterley. Few individuals have passed through life with more honour to himself, and credit to his family and connexions, than this truly excellent individual; but of this he himself made no boast, his trust was wholly in the Sinner's Friend, whose cross, both in life and death, was his only hope for acceptance with God. He joined the church at Hamsterley, in 1829, was the chief supporter of the cause for many a year; and, dying, left it L50 to aid its future struggles. A brief account of Mr.

Garthorn was given in the Baptist Magazine, for November, 1845.*

      But we must now draw our long narration, at least for the present, to its close, by adverting to the most interesting public fact connected with these Northern churches, this year. This fact is the resignation of the two senior ministers in the association, namely, Mr. Pengilly, of Tuthill-stairs, and Mr. Sample, of New Court. On the reasons of their retirement, we shall only make one remark; and that is, that each conceived himself right in the step he took. The retirement of Mr. Pengilly, having been for some time made known, negotiations for a successor were, in consequence, in progress when the idea of succeeding to the vacant pastorate at Tuthill-stairs, was unexpectedly suggested to Mr. Sample; and, after serious deliberation on his part, and on that of the church at Tuthill-stairs, his acceptance of their call was ultimately decided on, and he commenced his labours, on the first Sabbath in May, in the place where, in early life, he had been baptized; Mr. Pengilly having preached his Farewell Discourse on the preceding Sabbath, from Revelation ii. ch. 10th verse, and also taken an affectionate leave of his people, at a parting prayer meeting, held the next evening: after which he retired to Egglescliffe, near Yarm; where it is hoped the evening of his life may be usefully spent. Mr.
* From the ancient documents connected with the Garthorn family, the writer supposes some glimmerings of light may be thrown on one or two points in our history, and on that of the family. In 1680, Michael Garthorn held New Row. This must have been the father of Michael Garthorn, who died in 1773. Hugh Garthorn, of New Row, lived in 1656. He was, very probably, the father of Michael, of 1680. In connexion with the name of Hugh, in 1656, we have the name of Henry Blacket, of Oakenshaw, parish of Brancepeth. This was, probably, the father of Henry Blacket, of Bitchburn, as this latter, at that time, was only in his seventeenth year.

Sample also took leave of his charge at New Court, on the last Sabbath in April, preaching, in the morning, from Acts ch. xxi. ver. 14, and giving an address in the afternoon. The recognition of the union of the church at Tuthill-stairs, with their new pastor, took place on the 5th November, 1845, when Mr. Pengilly gave a brief account of the church, since 1780, and of the circumstances connected with the recent change; he then proposed the usual questions to the church and the minister. On their response, Mr. Douglas, of Hamsterley, offered the recognition prayer; and Mr. Pengilly addressed the pastor, after which Mr. Roe, of Birmingham, preached to the church.

      In the evening, a numerous tea party assembled, in the Victoria Room. Mr. Pengilly took the chair after tea, and in the course of his speech, announced the idea of a new meeting-house, and preposed to do all he could in furtherance of the object. This was warmly responded to by Mr. Sample, who, with several other friends, promised liberal subscriptions towards its accomplishment. Other sums have since been subscribed, and a committee, for adopting necessary preliminaries, has been appointed. May better and brighter days in point of usefulness, be in reserve for this ancient church, and all the other churches in the association, as well as those not connected with it, till the whole of these Northern counties be brought under the sceptre of Him whose rightful sway of reconciliation, purity, and love, can alone make men happy here, and fit them for another and more permanent world!

      Thus have we wandered through the long range of nearly two hundred years, from 1648 to 1845, and are now looking forward to our Bicentenary. But when should it take place? It has been mentioned that the churches of Broughton and Newcastle, had their beginnings about the years 1645 and 1650. With the exact

period, however, of the formation of these churches, we are altogether unacquainted; but we are certain of the precise year of the formation of the church at Hexham, now represented by the churches of Broomley, Rowley, and Hamsterley. This was on 21st July, 1652. The writer would therefore, humbly submit, that July, 1852, should be regarded as the bicentenary of the commencement of the churches, in these four northern counties, and to be holden at that period. But who is to see it! Many now alive, will have bade adieu to the scenes of earth, and the hand that has written these pages, may, very probably, be incapable of writing the third chapter of the period, intervening between 1821 and 1852! But it matters little who are then alive, or who dead, provided that the dead are with God, and the living are walking with Him, and labouring for Him. It is our happiness to know, amidst all the mutation that attaches to time and its transient and ever-varying scenes - that the children of God's servants shall continue, and their seed shall be established before Him that instead of the fathers there shall be the children - that the Redeemer's name shall be remembered in all generations, and that the people shall praise Him for ever and ever. May our posterity be among them!

      Before concluding the account of the Northern Churches, it is necessary to give a summary view of their present state. Since the year 1832, little communication has taken place between the churches of Northumberland and Durham, and the churches in Cumberland aud the north of Lancashire. This, in the first instance, arose from a difference between the eastern churches and one of those in the west; but, the great distance between the eastern and western coast of the island, the expense of travelling, and the increase of the churches in both districts, have consummated the disruption. The ancient Northern Association then,

that commenced in 1690, may be regarded as extinct, and merged in the associations of the counties of Durham aud Northumberland, and of Cumberland and Westmoreland on the west coast. This is expected, at least, to be the ultimatum. At present, however, the only Baptist church in Westmoreland, at Brough, is in connexion with the eastern churches; but the churches in Cumberland are not, as yet, fully associated. The ancient churches of Tottlebank and Hawksheadhill are now united with the association of Lancashire. Tottlebank is at present enjoying the services of Mi. Thomas Taylor: Hawksheadhill has lately become renovated, under the active care and guidance of Mr. D. Kirkbride. This cause had become extinct, by the death of its last member, about 1833; but a new one was, however, begun at Conistone, to which Hawksheadhill is now united. As to the churches in Cumberland - Broughton has, at present, Mr. Collins for its pastor, and is, we understand, in a very feeble condition. Oulton is still nominally connected with it. The cause at Workington is also very low. Ravenglas has been dissolved for some years. The number of members on the church-book, at Whitehaven, was sixty in 1844. Mr. Tunley is its present minister. At Maryport, Mr. Anderson is the pastor: their number is seventy, and they have two Sunday schools, one with 100 and the other with 40 scholars. At Carlisle, Mr. Osborne, formerly of Brough, succeeds Mr. Trickett as minister. With the amount of the church, congregation, or schools, &c., we are not acquainted.

      We subjoin the following Tabular Views of the Meetings of the Association during the last twenty-three years, and also of the present state of the Associated Churches in Durham and Northumberland.



Years. Places. Increase Decrease Total Children in SS Teachers Village Stations. 1822 South Shields 53 18 386 1823 Tottlebank 31 15 421 1824 Rowley 35 8 404 1825 North Shields 28 43 255 1826 Stockton 25 16 283 1827 Newcastle 10 16 " 1828 Broughton " " " 1829 Hamsterley 33 17 341 1830 South Shields " " " 1831 Masham " 1832 Middletou 61 29 577 1833 Wolsingham 50 33 478 1834 North Shields 1835 Rowley 1836 Stockton 1837 Newcastle 15 19 213 1838 Hamsterley 45 23 439 600 26 1839 South Shields 46 27 560 431 31 1840 Middleton 182 19 475 230 1841 North Shields 162 30 797 779 107 30 1842 Brough 104 37 852 788 125 56 1843 Broomley 114 35 917 1075 196 58 1844 Wolsingham 99 1 771 990 187 64 1845 Stockton 42 22 92

      [Note: The numbers from 1831-1845 will have to be sought from the original document as (") is often used and is difficult to scan.]

      These reports are very imperfect, as some of the churches had either not sent letters, or indistinct returns.

      During these years, a few circular letters were printed. One in 1822, by Mr. Harbottle, on "The Assistance Churches ought to give to their Ministers." In 1830, Mr. Pengilly wrote one, on "The Utility of Associations." Mr. Douglas wrote, in 1831, on "Dissent;" and another, in 1834, on "Avoiding Discord among Brethren." Mr. Williamson wrote one, on "The Sanctification of the Sabbath," in 1833. Mr. Fuller's "Practical Uses of Baptism," was also republished, under the direction of Mr. Pengilly, in 1832. The pastors of the churches, generally speaking, took their turn in preaching, on these annual occasions. All usually spoke at the Missionary Meetings.

[A Chart of: THE ASSOCIATED CHURCHES IN DURHAM, NORTHTHUMBERLAND, &C. - STATE IN 1845. - This chart is not included.]


      As to the unassociated, we regret that we cannot give so exact an account as we could wish, as the reports received have been imperfect, and others though sought, have not been given. We can, therefore, only recapitulate their names: Sans-street, Sunderland; formed 1797, pastors, Messrs. Wilson and Redman, the former recently deceased. There is another small church, in Sunderland, formed sometime ago, under Mr. Preston. Wooler, formed in 1800, is at present in a low state. Ford Forge, under Mr. Black, numbers about thirty-five members. Berwick, one hundred, with several preaching stations. Newcastle has two churches: one under Mr. Banks, which lately numbered upwards of a hundred; and Providence Chapel, under R. B. Sanderson, Esq., which has other two or three stations, in Newcastle and the neighbourhood, all of which bid fair to produce good fruit. Bedlington is very small. At Houghton-le-Spring, there is a small church, under Mr. Bee; and the society at Hetton-le-hole, formerly under Mr. Greatrix, is now, we understand, also under the care of Mr. Bee. Harflepool, is a new community, raised of late by a flux of Baptist brethren, into this increasingly interesting port. The church at Darlington, under Mr. Lightfoot, is but small. A new attempt is about to be made in this rising town, by Mr. R. Hall, from Stepney College.
* Rowley separated from Hamiterley, in 1785; and Rowley and Broomley parted from each other, in 1843


      In concluding this brief narrative of the Baptist churches, in the North of England, the writer cannot forbear making a very few- remarks, arising from a review of the whole.

      The first of these is that the narrative itself is - in accordance with the Divine Will. Some persons may be ready to say, What is the benefit resulting from telling us so much about the past and the men of the past? We care little about who or what were our grandfathers. But if such an objection were valid, it would be equally so as applied to the Scriptures, for what are they from the beginning to their close, but a Divinely inspired Ecclesiastical History. And we find God himself calling on the Israelites, for their spiritual benefit, to review the past, "Thou shalt remember all the way which the Lord thy God led thee these forty years," &c.; and again, "Look to the rock whence thou wast hewn, and the hole of the pit whence thou wast dug," &c. We are, no doubt, called to do the same, and for the same object, that our present spiritual benefit may be promoted. The dead are set before us also in the Scriptures, and we are called "to follow them so far as they followed Christ." "Be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises." Whatever was wrong about our forefathers and predecessors, then, let us shun, and whatever was good let us carefully and energetically imitate. Let us be grateful when we review their position and our own. They wrought for God in the face of opposition, imprisonment, and death. We are called to perform the same work, but under widely different circumstances, under our own vine and fig tree, no one daring to make us afraid.

      Another remark is, that as our communities had their origin in high attachment to the Saviour of the guilty, they can only be maintained by a similar state of mind. Such was the case with the churches in the days of the apostles. In all matters, they "First gave themselves to the Lord, and then to one another, by the will of God." When this spirit pervaded their assemblies, all was well. The love of Christ was the constraining principle of all their actions. Their zeal, liberality, and holy conduct sprang from this; but when their love to Him began to cool, and they began to feel "the impulsive power of a new affection" in the wrong way, when the world laid hold on their affections, and in religion

they had become neither cold nor hot, then usefulness was at an end; the spring of it was gone, and the Saviour had no delight in them. "Because thou art neither cold nor hot, but lukewarm, I will spue thee out -of my mouth." "Because thou has left thy first love, I will remove the candlestick out of its place." So it was with our fathers, when the love of the Saviour was predominant; they were fhllof love and zeal, their hearts and hands were open to every good work ; but when the love of the world intervened, contention and every evil work also obtruded; peace was banished, usefulness ceased, the world was stumbled, and the churches became reduced. Such is said to be the case, at the present time, with many of the Mennonite, or Baptist, churches on the continent. May our churches, in this country, take warning. "No man can serve two masters." "Love not the world, nor the things of the world. If any man love the world, the love of the father is not in him."

      A third remark is, let us not only inbibe the spirit of our forefathers, but, so far as their views of Divine truth were Scriptural, let us hold them fast. The views of Bunyan, as they appear in his Pilgrim['s Progress], &c., which, generally speaking, were held by our predecessors, are in the main Seripturally correct and simple. He and they held the great doctrine of RECONCILIATION on the part of totally depraved and guilty man, with a pure, just, and merciful God, through a simple and humble dependance on the "blood of the great Propitiation," "God manifest in the flesh." They also held the doctrine of REGENERATION AND SANCTIFICATION by the enlightening, drawing, and purifying influence of the Divine Spirit, in order to lead men to repentance, to the exercise of faith, and to its fruit in the manifestation of a holy and actively useful life, that thereby they might live to the glory of their Redeemer here, and be fitted for the enjoyment of the society of a pure God in a holy heaven hereafter. In connexion with these simple and practical views of the doctrines of the New Testament, were their conceptions of the spiritual nature of Christ's kingdom. That kingdom, in their view, was the reign of God ALONE over the reason, conscience, heart, and life of men, civil governments having no right to interfere with these, so far as religious views and the mode of worship were concerned. Like their Lord and Master, they rendered to Caesar the things that were Caesar's, but to God the things that were God's. They were, in consequence, subject to the ruling powers in all things that did not touch conscience towards God; but they deemed

it their duty to preach, the gospel in a peaceable manner, to every creature, yet never allowed themselves to be beguiled either by state pensions, or the fear of persecution, from the performance of this and similar duties. As to the ordinances of Baptism, the Lord's supper, &c., they confined these to persons who had made a Scriptural and credible profession of their faith in Christ; and with reference to the former, they regarded it as the great line of demarcation between the church and the world. Such were the views of Bunyan, and the generality of the Baptists in former days, and such in our own times have been the views of Booth, Fuller, Hall, Maclean, Carson, and others of our distinguished writers. Some slight shades of difference there may be between these, but still in the main they were agreed in the sentiments specified above. Let us then, dear brethren, hold fast these views, and in the spirit of holy Christian affection, let us strive to ascertain rather the amount of agreement subsisting between the different churches, than the amount of difference; or, according to the direction of the highest authority, "Let as many as desire to be perfect be thus minded; let us leave the things behind and reach towards those before; and whereunto we have already attained, let us walk by the same rule, let us mind the same thing; and if in anything ye be otherwise minded, God shall reveal even this unto you."

      Finally, - Let us endeavour to improve upon the character of tke efforts of our forefathers, by seeking in a higher degree to blend Scriptural wisdom, zeal, and energy in all our attempts to maintain and extend the cause of God. The generations gone by have done something, and we ought to be grateful for it; but much remains yet to be done. The population of Durham and Northumberland alone, is upward of half a million, containing sixteen wards, averaging about 37,000 each. Out of these our members will not number two thousand; and, perhaps, with all our exertions in itinerating labours, not ten thousand may enjoy our teaching; there is, therefore, much room for farther labour, and ample scope for the liberality of the churches. Ought we not then to devise liberal things, that by liberal things we may stand? Should not all our wisdom be brought to bear on the revealed wisdom of Heaven, in ascertaining the means appointed for the salvation of guilty men? In the above counties, and in Westmoreland, we have upwards of twenty churches tolerably advantageously situated, from Darlington on the South to Berwick-on-Tweed on the North, and from Broughton on

the West to Sunderland on the East. Each church is surrounded by an extensive district, and were their ministers put all in a position in which they could constantly co-operate, much more good would, doubtless, be accomplished. It is good to meet each other once a year; but this is too seldom to carry on the work of God efficiently. But what can be done? Our churches are small and poor. Our ministers are bound to their position by a constant demand on their reading, study, and preaching to the same people. Sabbath after Sabbath, through slow successive years. It is difficult to suggest a remedy. Some have proposed interchanges, and this doubtless would be of use; but few of our ministers could bear the expense, and besides it is not convenient often to leave their families or their flocks, especially under certain circumstances, demanding their immediate superintendence.

      Removals have, likewise, been proposed, and these in some instances have operated well. In many other cases, however, these have proved detrimental to the churches. Nothing more tended at certain periods, to mar the prosperity of the community at Tut-hill-stairs, Newcastle, than the frequent removal of its ministers. Churches, under these circumstances, get into an unsettled state; parties are formed, one for one minister and another for another. It becomes exceedingly difficult, in consequence, to get them so united as to obtain a ministry acceptable to all, and cheerfully supported by all. From this, then, it would appear that removals, on the whole, are not desirable, unless conducted on a particular plan, or system, as in the case of the Methodists, or Lady Huntingdon's connexion. It may then become a grave question, whether our Independency could comport with a moveable Itinerancy. The writer thinks it could, and has endeavoured to evince this in his "Essay on the Nature and Perpetuity of the office of the Primitive Evangelist." In this Essay, he has endeavoured to show that a stationary self-supported eldership, superintending, attached to local portions of Independent churches, might easily co-operate with a moveable class of Itinerants or Evangelists, supported by the churches in general, and stationed periodically, by a general union of the whole of these churches. Such seems to have been, in the opinion of the writer, the working of the Primitive church. The elder taught "the church in his house." The Itinerants, the Apostles or Evangelists, scoured the country, to get him a church to teach. If this is God's way then, it must be best to secure the great object of Christianity, the salvation of men, by its universal spread, both at home and abroad. The plan has

generally speaking, wrought well amongst the Methodists; and if placed on a more Scriptural footing than they have it, might it not work better still? The writer hopes the mention of this will not be regarded as officious or ostentatious. His object, he hopes, is neither to exhibit vanity nor to sow discord, but enquiry whether we have yet attained to the Scriptural means, that, our Redeemer would have his people employ, in order to the purity, the peacefulness, and the advancement of his cause in the world.

      But whatever method we adopt, let us, in conclusion, never forget that life is fast wasting away. The present generation of our churches will soon be in the grave. It behoves us, then, to "work while it is called to day, for the night cometh when no man can work." So said our Saviour with regard to his work. - So let us say in relation to ours. "Whatsoever then our hands find to do, let us do it with our might, as there is neither work nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave whither we go."

The End