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History of the Baptist Churches in the North of England
[1748 - 1769]

Mr. Garner - Mr. C. Hall - Newcastle - Associations - Yorkshire churches - David Fernie - Hamsterley - High and low Calvinism - Result of dispute - Marion - Midlam - Joseph Robson - Mr. Robert Hall - Experience - Dispute with Mr. Fernie - Baptism - Messrs. Rutherford and Peden - Messrs. C. and R. Hall - Newcastle - Messrs. Fernie, Rutherford, Peden and Bowser - Associations - Cuthbert Crawford - Michael Wharton, Junior - Bridlington - Death of Mr. Isaac Garner - Family - Character - Success - Joshua Garner - Bridlington - Newcastle letter to Hexham - Tottlebank - Scotch Baptists - Mr. Fernie's visit to them - Their letter, and his reply - Bridlington - Mr. J. Garner - Mr. Fernie's letter - Newcastle - Mr. Alle.
      1748.* - On the demise of Mr. Carr, Mr. Garner became the pastor of the church meeting at Hamsterley, Rowley, and Hindley. The account he gives of himself is as follows: "In this year - probably 1741 - I came to Hamsterley, being then a member of the church of Christ meeting at Broughton and Oulton, in Cumberland, having liberty from the said church to preach a year at Stamfordham, in Northumberland: and the church here, considering their ministers
* This year terminated the course of that sweet singer of Israel, Dr. Isaac Watts. He died, November 25, aged 77. His friend, and great compeer in theology and British psalmody, Dr. Doddridge, survived him three years, and died at Lisbon, October 21, 1751, in the 50th year of his age. As to our own minstrels in psalmody, Dr. Samuel Stennet had now begun his career, and died 25th August, 1795: Mr. Beddome was contemporary with Dr. Stennet, and died the same year, September 3rd, aged 79. On the 29th March, 1795, Dr. Steadman received Miss Steele, as a member of the church at Broughton, Hampshire.
were aged, and not likely to be long with them, desired mine assistance, for a certain time; the which was consented to, both by the church in Cumberland and myself. Afterwards, I was ordained by the imposition of hands, at a general meeting, at Hamsterley; but did not receive the particular charge of this, or any other congregation. Then, after Mr. Carr's death, by fasting and prayer, I was chosen to the Lord's work, in his vineyard here. But Oh! how insufficient am I for it! Lord how little have I done for thee! Give me strength and wisdom to feed thy flock, and watch over them in love! Bless me with, and among them, and when we give up our account, may it be with joy, and not with griefe."

      We are then presented, by Mr. Garner, with the letter, of his dismission from the church at Broughton and Oulton. It is directed, "to the church in Derwentwater." "Beloved in the Lord, - Being met together at our seventh day meeting, (Saturday night before the ordinance,) we unexpectedly received yours, by your messenger and brother, - William Angus, concerning our member (viz.) Brother Isaac Garner; the which was, in some measure, taken into consideration by us. But, first of all, we cannot but really sympathize with you in the great loss you are likely to sustain, at the departure of our dear and well-beloved brother, and your pastor, William Carr, who hath long laboured amongst you, and been over you in the Lord, and not only so, but who had on him the care of other churches, and is to be received home, as a shock of corn fully ripe in its season. - And now, brethren, as you have, once and again, shewed to us your desire, in releasing Brother Garner, that he may be a member wholly in in communion with you, and solely at your disposal, as the Lord may direct you, so we trust, that what we now do, we do it heartily, as unto the Lord, having no other

view than the glory of God, and good of souls. So we give and bequeath him unto you, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is the head of his church. But oh, that the mantle of your Elijah might but fall on Elisha! How would this contribute to your joy, &c., and to our satisfaction !"

      In the end of this letter, gratitude is expressed, by the people of Broughton, for a brother sent to assist them in the time of need. Their pastor, Mr. Ruston, was now getting very infirm, and needed help. One of the members of the church at Harnsterley, Mr. Christopher Hall, had been sent by that church, to assist the people at Broughton, in their present exigency. A request is also made, that whatever assistance they might need, in future, may be granted.

      This letter is dated the 18th of the 3rd month, May, 1748, and as Mr. Carr is not referred to as dead, but dying, so his death must have taken place some time after this, in the same year. Mr. Garner's pastorate over the church at Hamsterley, &c., commenced this year; the precise period is no where specified.

      The individual mentioned above, Mr. C. Hall, was a young man at this time, about twenty-four years of age, being born in 1724. His father, whose name was also Christopher, was a reputable farmer, at a village called Black Heddon, upwards of twelve miles north-west of Neweastle-on-Tyne. The ancestors of the family had long lived on the same farm. He was the eldest son of his father's second family. His father died when he was between fifteen and sixteen years of age, and he continued with his mother till she was again married. Sometime previously to the middle of the year 1745, he had become acquainted with Mr. Garner, in his jour- neys to Stamfordham. He had been educated a Presbyterian by his mother, although his father was a churchman. Mr. Garner's teaching led him to more

accurate views of the spiritual nature of the kingdom of the Saviour. He seems not to have had sufficient strength of body for hard labour; and, as he was a pious young man, discovering considerable mental capacity, on his adopting Baptist sentiments, Mr. Garner gave him an invitation to live with him for some time, at Hamsterley, that he might afford him some instruction for future usefulness.* Mr. Hall complied, and in August that year, he came to Hamsterley, and was baptized by Mr. Garner, in September following, and added to the church in that village. During the same month he was called to exercise his gifts in preaching before the church, and doing this to their satisfaction, he was designated to preach publicly where the church might send him. For some time he assisted Mr. Garner, by preaching at the house of Mr. William Angus, at the Juniper-Dye-House, in the neighbourhood of Hexham; also at Stamfordham, where a chapel had been lately built; Styford, &c. It was then that he became acquainted with his future wife, Catherine, sister of Mr. Angus, whom he married, in 1747, and removed to Wigton, in Cumberland, to assist Mr. Euston, of Broughton, who was become very infirm. This he did chiefly at Oulton, which lay only a short distance from Wigton, though he preached occasionally both at Broughton and Whitehill. Such were the condition
* The following lines sent by Mr. Hall, in reply to Mr. Garner, will show the state of his mind at this time: "I hope the Lord is calling me to be a fellow-labourer with you in Christ, and for his glory. Oh that the Lord may go forth with us and call home many souls that are strangers to themselves and to Christ. Oh for clearer discoveries of Him, both as to his person and the relation that he stands in to his people. Oh that we may experience more of the glorious effects of the blessed union that there is between Christ and his people. Bless the Lord, with me, that all my delight is in prayer, meditating, and speaking of Christ, and things of Christ." This letter is dated 27th July, 1745.
and employment of Mr. Hall, when Mr. Garner, on the death of Mr. Carr, became pastor of the church at Hamsterley.

      1749. - The association in 1749 held its meeting at Broughton, Cumberland; and in the end of this year, 17th December, a letter was sent by a Mr. Kendall, of Gateshead, to the church at Hamsterley, relative to the condition of the church at Tuthill-stairs, Newcastle, twenty-nine years after the purchase of the premises there. It would appear, that a Mr. Weir had been, for some time, the pious, faithful, popular, and successful minister of the place; but had now gone. A Mr. Durance had become, in consequence, the Diotrephes of the church; but they had, at length, got rid of him. Mr. Kendall implores, in the following language, the church at Hamsterley to assist their sister church in the time of its need:

      "Dearly beloved, Out of a sincere love and hearty desire to promote the cause of Christ, and the promulgating the ever-blessed gospel, your worthless brother hath found in his heart to give you the following intimation of the poor, reduced, and distressed church of Christ, usually meeting at Tuthill-stairs.

      You know, my beloved brethren, the unwearied pains, that faithful servant of Jesus Christ, Mr. Weir, took in visiting, exhorting, and reclaiming the few poor, scattered sheep, and to re-establish them on their own and old foundation. But the time of building the Lord's house was not then come. It would affect one's heart to see what flockings there was to his ministry, and to hear so many enquiring after him, and expressing of so much love and liking to his ministry. But now, my beloved friends, the Lord, in his providence, hath removed Mr. Durance, the great opposer of the gospel, from the place, and there seems to be an opportunity of reviving and restoring the gospel of Jesus in this place; and I am fully persuaded, considering the fewness of the people that are left, most of whom are women, it is your incumbent duty to make it your business as a neighbouring and sister church, as an evidence that you have the glory of God and the good of his people at heart, to come, two or three of you, with the prayers of the church, and in the name of the Lord, Jesus, to make a solemn demand of the rights and properties of the church; or a

      1750. - In the year 1750, the annual meeting was held at Hamsterley, and also in 1751; and at Broughton, in 1752. The letters dwell on the usual topics, and contain nothing of historical interest. The church at Bridlington, from the removal of Mr. Mitchel, in 1748, was without a pastor till 1752, when Mr. John Oulton settled with them.*

      1752. At this period, Mr. Garner obtained another assistant in the ministry. A North Briton, of the name of David Fernie, had become a member of the church, - was baptised by Mr. Garner, sometime about 1750. as his name first appears that year, in the association letter of the church, as co-pastor with Mr. Garner. Of his parentage, or the part in Scotland whence he came, we know nothing, though it is probable he came from Fifeshire. He was a man in middle age, mighty in the Scriptures, of very acute intellect, and ready recollection. He unhappily imbibed high Calvinistic notions, and infused the same doctrines into the minds of a considerable number of the members of the church, and among others, into the mind of Mr. C. Hall. Hitherto, generally speaking, the church and the ministers had held and preached the views of Calvinism, as
least, to enquire at Mr. West, what he intends to do respecting the gospel ministry here; but, I shall not direct, only advise, &c.,
     Your Christian friend and servant,
          JAS. KENDALL."

* Some of the most eminent churches in Yorkshire came into existence at this time. Gildersome, in 1749, Mr. John Thomas, pastor; Wainsgate, in 1750, Mr. Richard Smith, pastor; Steep-Lane, had preaching from 1751; Shipley, Mr. Gawkrodger, in 1752; Haworth, the same year, Mr. James Hartley. Bradford, sprang from Haworth and Bawden. It began in the village of Maningham, near Bradford; Mr. Crabtree, from Wainsgate, became the first minister. He was ordained 5th Dec., 1753. He died in 1811, aged 91.

held by Bunyan. Now, the eternal justification, adoption, sanctificatiou, and the rest of the supralapsarian ideas of Dr. Crisp, adopted by Dr. Gill, Brine, Johnson of Liverpool, and others, crept in, and, marred for a time, the peace of the church, and its usefulness in the world. For no small period this controversy, prevailed; the church dividing itself into two parties, Mr. Garner taking the lead on the One side, and Mr. Fernie on the other, till matters caine to a crisis, and the parties mutually withdraw from each other - each party supposing themselves in the right - having great names to adduce in support of each side of the argument.*

      With regard to the precise status of each party, we think there is reason to believe, that the greater part of the church lying between the Tyne and the Wear, clung to Mr. Garner; but still, a few, in each place, sympathized with Mr. Fernie. Among the most distinguished of those who held with the latter, were Mr. Thomas Blacket, of Hamsterley, who for some years
* As is usual in such cases, a very considerable degree of asperity was exhibited on this occasion, and for many years after- wards. The strife was, however, in a great degree, one more of words than things. Both parties held the decrees of God; both insisted on holiness of character in the Christian; and both were composed of men, in the main, of pious and upright name in society. With regard to the leading parties, Mr. Garner was so far as we can judge, the more amiable and the more correct in his views approaching more to those of Mr. Fuller of modern times. Mr. Fernie appears to have been, perhaps,the more able and vigourous of the two; but, probably, the more stern in his disposition, with certain opinions, carried to the extreme, and leading to declarations tending to keep the sinner in his unbelief, and the backslider to suppose, all was well with him, while going on in his sins. In a letter of Dr. Stennet, to Mr. Garner, we find him deploring their disputes and mutual recriminations, in addressing him and others; but says, of Mr. Fernie, that he was regular in his morals and had baptized an Independent minister and his whole congregation, and calls on Mr. Garner to defend himself in a Christian spirit.

preached at Hamsterley and the neighbourhood, but afterwards became reunited to the church; Mr. William Angus, of the Juniper-Dye-House, an excellent man, and of a very liberal disposition, as he was usually termed the Gaius, or the host of the church;* and also, his brother-in-law, Mr. Christopher Hall, already mentioned. Mr. Jonathan Angus, of Panshields, the deacon on the northern side of the church, a little man, but who, for talent and weight of character, was a host in himself, took part with Mr. Garner.+
* Mr. William Angus was descended in the eldest direct line from Mr. Henry Angus, of the Kaw House, whose eldest son, "William, was father to Henry, of the Dye-House, father to Mr. William Angus in question, and to Catherine, wife of Mr. C. Hall. Mr. Angus was born 1719, and died, February, 1 788, aged 69. He married a Miss Frizzell, or Fraser, who bore hftn three sons and five daughters, most of whom, and their descendants, have been, or are, either members of Baptist churches, or supporters of the cause. The Rev. George Sample, of Newcastle, is Mr. Angus' grandson, by one of his daughter.

+ Mr. J. Angus has left a long manuscript on the dispute. So did Mr, Michael "Wharton, Junr., on Mr. Fernie's side, "but as both refer more to points in which they agreed, rather than those in which they differed, we shall only give the following admirable letter of Mr. Joseph Carr, son of Mr. William Carr, the late minister, and father of Dr. Carr. It is addressed- to Mr. Isaac Garner.

      "My esteemed friend, - That I was not disappointed with the conclusion the people came to, relating to David (Fernie,) is what you are not ignorant of. I often thought the essentials of that difference were not of such a tendency as that a divison among the people should have been the issue. If he, viz. David, never publicly preached, or in private conversation maintained, any particular points relating to faith, or the edifying of the Christian believer, but what I have been made acquainted with, in my simple way of thinking, many of those who now not only seemingly, but really, oppose him with a high hand, will make but a poor reply to the Chief Shepherd and Bishop of Souls in the great day of his

      All strife in any portion of the Christian church is to "be deplored. We have the highest authority for saying, that a house divided against itself, cannot stand. God, however, has, in his all-wise providence, so ordered matters that good, remarkable and extensive good too, has often sprung out of that, which, in its own
appearance for so doing. Moreover, having an opportunity of perusing a copy of the "order left by John Ward, relating to the 100 given by him for the support of a gospel ministry in Derwentwater, where, according to his account, the church was first fixed; and seriously considering with myself what he expressly saith respecting those ministers for whose support he designed the interest of that sum, viz., 'that they be sound in the faith, and fundamental principles of the gospel, as personal election flowing out of the free love of God in and for Jesus Christ, his worth and merits, who is the head and first-chosen of God and precious, and we are freely chosen of God in him before the foundation of the world, the true and special fruits whereof are faith and repentance, &c., final perseverance, &c., all of which are the gifts of God,' - all of which principles my friend David publicly preacheth, and constantly, so far as I ever knew, maintaineth, - therefore why he should be deprived of having a share with other ministers, who teach and preach the same doctrines in Derwentwater, I am at a loss to know. I shall however freely communicate my thoughts to you relating to this conduct, which are as follow, - that those who are employed as trustees are not acting according to their duty, nor faithfully discharging that trust reposed in them. And, how lamentable is this, that men should take such a charge upon them, and act in diametrical opposition to the order given them. God only knows what views I have before me in this undertaking. So far as I know my own heart, the glory of God, the good of the people in general, and in particular you, whom I love as my own soul, and your spiritual welfare I greatly desire. May the God, who is the author of all our blessings, shew unto you his mind and will, and fully preserve you and his people from falling into the bypaths of error in principle or practice, that His truths, and his only, might, by his grace, be made to take place, in all your hearts.

      I beseech you, bear with my freedom in this undertaking, and as I don[']t expect shortly to see you any where in the northside, I hope you will not be unwilling to transmit me a line by way often

nature tended only to evil. It was so, in the present instance. A Mr. Thos. Angus went to reside in the neighburhood of Stockton-on-Tees, and being attached to Mr. Fernie, requested his periodical visitations to preach in his neighbourhood. Mr. Fernie complied; and certain persons residing in the village of Marton, in Yorkshire, about six miles south of Stockton, and the birth place of the distinguished Captain Cook, being led to embrace Baptist principles, a small chapel was erected
answer. If others be saying, 'he hath a devil and is mad, why do you hear him? I am conscious to myself, that next to the glory of that wonder-working God, who hath done great things for my soul, the spiritual advantage of that people, before whom my dear progenitor walked in the order and ordinances of the gospel, is my principal view and desire. And I heartily desire that God may yet be gracious to this people, by causing them, for his own name and glory's sake, to grow in grace, to become fruitful in works of holiness, serving God in sincerity, continually walking before him as the redeemed of the Lord, bearing a witness against the enormities of the day, for the complete redemption of the church draweth nigh. May the merciful High Priest of the church, - Dear Isaac I had almost written "brother, - but I am loath to offend you - refresh your soul daily, with the comfortable influences of his Spirit and grace, and may you be made to drink large draughts of that river which maketh glad the cily of the living God, to whom be present and future glory. Amen.
          JOS. CARR."
"Horselehope, Feby. 17th, 1752."

      This letter confers the greatest honour on the individual who wrote it, as a man of education, good sense, piety, justice, and peace, equally attached to the doctrine of free grace and to holiness. Surely David Fernie, whatever might have been his failings, in common with his fellow-creatures, could not have had such an advocate, had his doctrine been very unsound, his spirit and temper, in the main, unchristian, or his conduct immoral. It is evident, that Mr. Joseph Carr warmly loved Isaac Garner, while he took part with David Fernie. O when will such unchristian contention, between Christians and Christian ministers, cease? The real philosophy of history is the improvement of the past, by avoiding its errors in the present and future

by them in that village. The chapel exists to the present day, and is occupied by the Baptists in Stockton. As some persons connected with the cause at Marton, lived at Stockton, these laid the foundation of the respectable cause that now exists in that growing and important town. Another individual and his family, attached also to Mr. Fernie,* afterwards removed to Woodhall, near Midlam, in the North of Yorkshire; and Mr. Fernie following these likewise, in his usual routine of visitation, there arose, eventually, out of these journeys, and those of others, not only the causes of Bedale and Masharn. but of Dishforth and Boro'bridge, as will appear more fully in the sequel of our narrative.

      In the meantime an event occurred fraught with more illustrious consequences still. This was the conversion, of the younger brother of Mr. Christopher Hall to Baptist principles. This young man, now in his twenty-third year, had lost his father when between eleven and twelve, and resided with an uncle, at a place named Kirkley, about three miles to the east of Black Heddon. About twelve months after his arrival here, he became the subject of deep concern for his eternal safety. Unhappily the gospel was not preached where his uncle attended, but merely the dreary doctrine, to a conscience-burdened sinner, of Do and live. The result was, he spent seven years of vain effort to obtain peace of mind, sometimes even signing covenants with his own blood. With some lucid intervals, he was the subject of the deepest misery; so much so, that when he had, by accident, his collar-bone broken and his shoulder dislocated twice, he affirmed that the distress of his body was
* This was Mr. Joseph Robson, who had married Ruth, daughter of Mr. Jonathan Angus, of Panshields. Some of hia descendants are still in the same neighbourhood, connected with Baptist Societies, and others are scattered over the kingdom, maintaining the same principles. About this time, 1751, Baptist sentiments were exciting, much attention in the neighbourhood, and were particularly obnoxious to the Presbyterians. Mr. Hall drank deeply into this hate, together with his two friends. This was increased by the circumstance of his brother having become an Anabaptist, and even a preacher among them. This was woeful enough; but what was still worse, he had married one of them, the sister of the man who had licensed his house for their worship, and consequently there would be less hope of reclaiming him from the error of his ways. As to his children, they would have their Christian privileges sadly abridged, by being denied, in a most, cruel manner, the initiatory ordinance into the Christian church; and no

nothing to that of his mind. Sometimes he contemplated suicide, and once, at least, he set about performing the direful deed. Before, however, actually attempting it, he thought he would once more glance at the Bible. He did so, and the first words that met his eye were those gracious and condescending declarations of Jehovah, "Come now, and let us reason together; though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be white as snow," &c. This passage afforded him a faint gleam of hope, and he desisted from the shocking purpose, but still he obtained no settled relief, as the freeness and fulness of the gospel, as yet, were not understood by him. At length, however, he obtained relief by reading, studying, and understanding, by divine teaching, Galatians iv. 4, 5, "But when the fulness of time was come," &c. This was in May, 1748. He now changed his place of worship, and went to hear a Mr. Dryden, whose ministry was useful to him, and with whose people he joined in Christian communion. He also contracted a warm intimacy and friendship with two students, Mr. James Rutherford and Mr. William Peden, who were, at that time, under the tuition of Mr. Dryden.

      About this time, 1751, Baptist sentiments were exciting, much attention in the neighbourhood, and were particularly obnoxious to the Presbyterians. Mr. Hall drank deeply into this hate, together with his two friends. This was increased by the circumstance of his brother having become an Anabaptist, and even a preacher among them. This was woeful enough; but what was still worse, he had married one of them, the sister of the man who had licensed his house for their worship, and consequently there would be less hope of reclaiming him from the error of his ways. As to his children, they would have their Christian privileges sadly abridged, by being denied, in a most cruel manner, the initiatory ordinance into the Christian church; and nothing

only so, but they would be shamefully cut off from the prayers of the whole congregation, and brought up nothing but heathens in a Christian land. All these circumstances combined, fired the blood of the young Northumbrian, and his two young friends, against this pernicious and pestilent gang of religionists. They therefore determined, if possible, to make a bold effort to extirpate the heresy; and, in order to accomplish this object the more speedily and effectually, they resolved, that they would begin at head quarters. No sooner said than done. The eager combatants left home, to measure swords with the redoubted Anabaptist minister Fernie, at the Juniper-Dye-House.

      It was on a Saturday night, when this all-important engagement took place. Under colour of paying a visit to Mr. William Angus, the brother of Mr. Hall's sister-in-law, they came to the Juniper-Dye-House, intending to spend part of to-morrow in hearing Mr. Fernie preach. They were gladly welcomed and hospitably entertained. We may easily conceive, that the young visitants, during the introductory part of the conversation which would likely be led by Mr. Angus and Mr. Fernie would have to put forth an effort to appear pleased and comfortable; the effort, every now and then, relaxing into that state of the muscles of the countenance, most in accordance with the feelings of their mind studiousness regarding what they were to say, and keenness of ardour for the combat.

      At length the opportunity presented itself. Who uttered the first word we are not told, but it was uttered, and keenly taken up too. The battle commenced, and during two long hours it was maintained with immense eagerness. Fernie was well versed in the controversy, from having been, but recently, converted himself from Presbyterianism, and all the intricacy, subtilty, and

plausibleness of the Abrahamic covenant scheme, and the conventional applications of the terms Baptizo and Bap-to, and their usual prepositions. His two opponents, of Scotch descent, young Rutherford and Peden, would, by this time, in some measure at least, be acquainted with what was usually urged on these points, from the divinity chairs of St. Andrew's, Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Edinburgh; and young Hall would, doubtless, with all the native vigour of his mind, have studied closely the four important points of Paedobaptism - "The promise is unto you and your children," - "If the root be holy, so, also are the branches," - "The unbelieving wife is sanctified by the believing husband, &c.,else were your children unclean, but now they are holy," - and, "The baptism of households."

      The genius of Sir David Wilkie would be requisite, to give anything like a living picture of the particular appearance of each warrior, during the two hours of heroic onslaught. Never did the forefathers of these; three Scots, and the young Northumbrian, commanded by a Douglas and a Percy, in the bloody border strife of Chevy Ghase or Otterburu, combat more bravely, than did these youthful redoubted champions on the classic ground of Hexhamshire, fight the determined, but bloodless battle of Psedo and Anti-Paedobaptism. At length the strife seemed to close; but no, they retired only for a little, consulted, rallied, returned, were defeated again, and the close was final; but not exactly in the way that young Hall had expected. "When on the way between Kirkley and the Juniper-Dye-House, he thought nothing could be more easy than to put down Anabaptism by scriptural argument. The whole subject, he was persuaded, in the wide range of Revelation, was written as with a sun-beam; but, alas! how chop-fallen! neither himself, with all his native strength of

mind, nor the classical and metaphysical education of his companions, had produced the least impression on the calm undaunted front of David Fernie. Intrenched, as regards the SUBJECTS of Baptism, on three great leading points - namely, first, the spiritual nature of the Christian, as distinguished from the Jewish dispensation, second, the distinctness of the restriction of baptism to believers in the commission of Jesus, and third, the unvarying obedience, on the part of the Apostles, to this restriction, seemed to afford no room for the baptism of infants; - and, as regards the MODE of baptism - the practice of the Latin or Roman Church for thirteen centuries, established by all the fonts in the cathedrals and churches in Europe, at the present day, together with the uniform practice of the Greek Church, in Greece, &c., who certainly knew the meaning of their own language best, appeared entirely to limit it to immersion. On these points, independent of all others, Mr. Fernie conceived that he had not been beaten in the eager strife, and standing erect on the battle-field, he saw with some pleasure, but no surprise, the crest-fallen appearance of his youthful, but deeply-interesting visitors; and there can be little doubt, that his fervent prayer was, that the result of that day's interview might be, at no distant period, the leading them into all the truth as it is in Jesus.

      Such was, indeed, the result of the day in the case of them all, and that before a single revolution of the globe around its golden centre. Without, however, waiting for the sermon next day, the two chagrined students would not remain in the house, but returned that night, late as it was, to their own homes. They had been silenced, but not convinced; they read, and frequently met to compare notes for another engagement, but the acade my dissolving, the students were scattered. Young Hall, however, was determined, again to dare the field

alone. He was deeply persuaded, that the great mass of the Christian world could not be in the wrong, and that truth could not possibly be on the side of those deluded and despicable fanatics, the Anabaptists. He read the Scriptures carefully, and every book on the subject he could lay his hands on. Imagining, however, in his own mind, the possible replies to each of his arguments, by Mr. Fernie, his mind faltered, his heart began to fail him, and he strongly suspected, the more he looked at them with an honest ana unbiased mind, that none of them would stand the searching scrutiny of the master-mind, he had had to contend with. He also perused, with great care, Wilson's Scripture Manual; and the result was, that instead of returning to the Juniper-Dye-House, again to combat with Mr. Fernie, he cameio be baptized immersed as a believer in the Lord Jesus Christ, by him; and thus, laid the foundation for the connection of one of the best men, one of the greatest pulpit orators, and one of the most beautiful and efficient writers of the English language in modern times, the justly celebrated Robert Hall, his son, with the Baptist denomination.*
* As to the two young students, Rutherford and Peden, as already hinted, they were led within the same year to consider the subject of Baptism more deeply than heretofore. This was the case, particularly with the first named. In an appendix to a small work on the same subject, published about four years afterwards, in Dublin, he narrates his experience. There he tells us, that he was born in the North of England, and educated in the Presbyterian persuasion. He does not say that he was of Scotch descent; but it seems probable, from his being educated a Presbyterian, and from his going afterwards to a Latin school, at Jedburgh, in Scotland. It was to this seminary, that he went, when he left Mr. Dryden's academy. It was the custom in this school, for some of the more advanced scholars to repeat, on the Monday morning, a part of Vincent's Catechism... One morning, a short time after he went, he got a question to repeat
      Mr. Hall was baptized, by Mr. Fernie, 5th January, 1752, and in June he was called by the church to preach the gospel. He was then in his 24th year, and had been married the year before, in July, to Miss Jane Catcheside, who bore him fourteen children.
on Baptism. It led him to think. He does not mention that his mind had been excited on the subject previously, at the Dye-House; but whatever might be his reason for not stating this circumstance, we have the testimony of Mr. Hall, that Mr. R. was with him at that place, and of Dr. Ryland, that the writer of the tract at Dublin was the same person.

      The working of his mind on the subject, as stated by himself, evinces the character of that mind, and shows him to have been possessed of a considerable degree of acuteness. "The method I took," he says, "to have my doubts removed, was, more strictly to search into what Mr. Vincent, the Confession of Faith, and the catechisms, say upon the subject; but these failed to give the satisfaction wished for. I had frequently heard, that the Church of England affirms, that an infant is made a member of Christ, &c., and had been condemned for doing so; but, our own church says the very same thing, as it defines (baptism) to be an holy ordinance, wherein by sensible signs, Christ, and the benefits of the New Covenant, are represented, sealed, and applied to believers. Elsewhere, we are said to be made partakers of Christ, by the effectual application of his Holy Spirit, by working faith in us, and thereby uniting us to Christ in our effectual calling. "If," concludes Mr. B, "we are made partakers of these benefits by the sensible signs of Baptism, then it is not by the spirit of Christ in our effectual calling; but if it is by the word and spirit of Christ in our effectual calling, then it is not by the sensible sign in Baptism." This can never be reconciled. Three passages of scripture decided Mr. R's. mind; John iv. 23, &c., Hebrews xi. 6, and 1st Peter iii. 21. Wilson's Manual also had its influence in leading him to this decision, and he resolved, when the vacation arrived in the harvest time, he would visit some of the Baptist congregations in England. In the meantime, he informed his father of the change in his sentiments, and hinted at his intention. This kindled at home the fire of resentment. He tried to dismiss the subject from his mind, and wished to treat it as an indifferent and non-essential

      Mr. Hall settled in 1753, at Arnsby, in Leicestershire, the circumstances tending to which we are now ahout to relate.

      In the year 1747, we left Mr. Christopher Hall at Wigton, the assistant of Mr. Ruston, of Broughton. He continued thus employed till 1752. In the summer
matter, but could not. He now heard of Mr. Hall's baptism, and resolved to see him on his return.

      He did so, and Mr. Hall and he proposed to go to the Dye-House, on the Saturday week following. Mr. R. was first there. He was gladly welcomed, and admitted to the church meeting. There were two persons that night to he baptized, who related their experience; and with this Mr. B. was much affected, as also with the minister's discourse at the river side, together with his prayer before and after the administration. "These were so powerful and pertinent," says Mr. B., "that I secretly wished all my acquaintances present." He was asked, what he thought now. He tried to assume the air of opposition, and found the same arguments employed in defence, which he had learned from the Scriptures at a distance. The impression on his mind at the Baptism, his farther information from Mr. Hall, and the words - "why tamest thou," - led him to feel so, that he could scarcely forbear crying out, "What doth hinder me to be baptized?" He was so, next day. Two persons came forward early in the morning to be baptized. Mr. B. presented himself also, as a candidate, along with them. "The relation of our experience," he remarks, "took up much of the morning, the people standing on each side of the river. The occasion reminded me of the primitive baptism in Jordan. Mr. Fernie preached twice from Isaiah xxv. 26, and then proceeded to administer the Lord's Supper. He first addressed the parties newly baptized, and with cordial affection gave us the right hand of fellowship. It was a feast to my soul, and I stood in great need of it, for I met with a cool reception on my return home."

      His father asked him if he had been baptized. He told him the truth; and was desired to leave the house. "I quietly walked out," he says, " to lament my hard fate. After my father had gone to bed, my mother called me in, and the next morning his countenance was more towards me than at other times. In a short time, a beloved cousin was made the happy instrument of

of that year he was invited to supply the church at Arnsby, to whom he had heen recommended by a good old soldier, with whom he had become acquainted at Carlisle, when the army of the Duke of Cumberland, on their return from Scotland, encamped there. Mr. Hall
turning my father's heart, which put an end to all my troubles from that quarter."

      The cousin, Mr. refers to, was probably, Mr. William Peden, who went along with him and Mr. R. Hall to the Juniper-Dye-House. He is said, in a note, to have been the son of an uncle, whom he had much dreaded to encounter on the subject of Baptism. Both were men of great abilities, and strict piety, and died nearly at the same time, soon after. Dr. Ryland, in his funeral sermon for Mr. Hall, affirms, that Mr. Peden also became a Baptist, assisted Mr. Fernie in preaching at Tuthill-stairs, Newcastle, settled at Sunderland, but died young. This must have been the case, if Mr. Peden were his cousin, as Mr. Rutherford's book was published in 1758.

      Mr. R. was soon called out to preach the gospel, baptize, &c. He likewise assisted, for a short time, Mr. Fernie, at Tuthill-stairs; but in the beginning of 1754, he went to Dublin to preside over a Baptist church there. The following is an extract of a letter he wrote to Mr. Wm. Angus, of the Dye-House, soon after his arrival: -

           "DUBLIN, FEBY. 5, 1754.
     "Dear Brother, I wish the peace of God, that passeth all understanding, may possess your heart and soul, and establish you as a pillar in his house. I got safe to Dublin; and am since in very good health. The people here are of a very kind loving disposition; but too. polite and grand for such a rustic as myself. Capt. Fletcher has been all along a true friend to me. It is highly probable, my preaching will not be acceptable, my divinity being too coarse spun for such refined tastes as most of 'em have. They are bitter enemies to the doctrines of grace, (two or three excepted) so that I hear of a rumour among them that I fly as high as Dr. Gill, if not so high as Mr. Johnson. Judge ye what a situation I am in, who can neither get my tongue employed, nor my heart eased, except in the pulpit. And now may the good-will

went to Arnsby, and supplied for two Sabbaths in the end of the summer. The people wished him to remain, but, as he had engaged to spend the winter at Whitehaven, where he had had a weekly lecture, for some time, he could not comply. At this time Mr. Hall visited London, but returned to the north by the list August, and preached, it is supposed, at Oulton, on the 2nd, being Lord's day. On the 8th he was to preach at Broughton, and also next day, but to his great surprise, Mr. Thomas Palmer, of Hull, had possession of the pulpit. Mr. Hall, in the Whitehaven church-book, says, "Mr. Palmer did all this of his own accord." This appears, however, to have been a mistake, as the people seem to have been opposed to the high doctrines of Mr. Hall, which Mr. Palmer engaged to oppose, and, as he was a man of property, to preach to them freely.*

      In the end of the year 1751, a Mr. George Sephton, a member of the church in Liverpool, under Mr. Oulton,
of Him who dwelt, in the bush, be with my Bro., and the whole church. So prays your dear Brother in the best bonds,

      The Captain Fletcher, mentioned in this letter, was from Broughton, as Mr. R. directs Mr. Angus to write to him, by Mr. C. Hall, Whitehaveu, who could get all letters, &c., conveyed to Dublin.

      Mr. Rutherford continued at Dublin till he lost his health, in 1760. He was warmly and affectionately invited to succeed Mr. Ryland, at Warwick. He went there, but died soon after, in 1761.

* Mr. T. Palmer was brother to Henry Palmer, already mentioned. He appears to have been baptized at Broughton, in his 18th year, 1735, being born in 1738. He studied at one of the Scotch Universities, and settled at Hull, over a newly-formed church, chiefly members from Bridlington, 9th October, 1740. In 1750 he published a small work on Baptism; and in 1752 left Hull, and came to Broughton, as above stated.

had come to live at Whitehaven, and had joined the church at Broughton. He soon invited Mr. Hall to preach at Whitehaven, which the latter did with good effect, in the beginning of 1752. He baptized some there, to whom he had been, useful, and these, when the above circumstances transpired at Broughton, invited Mr. Hall to come and reside with them. He did so, and was ordained their pastor, 25th April, 1753. Previously to his ordination, he wrote to the people of Arnsby, that he now, from his engagements, at Whitehaven, could not comply with their wishes that he should settle among them, but recommended to them, his brother Robert, lately baptised by Mr. Fernie, and called to be a minister. They acted, on this advice, Mr. Robert complied, and arrived at Arnsby, in June, 1753, where he continued a laborious, useful, and beloved minister till his death, 13th March, 1791.

      Mr. Christopher Hall continued at Whitehaven till 1760, when he removed to Harvey-lane, Leicester, over which church, at a later period, presided the great William Carey, and his distinguished nephew, Robert Hall, Junior, for about 20 years. He, himself, remained only one year and a quarter. In 1761, he settled at Rye, in Sussex; and in the following year, he removed to Luton, Bedfordshire, where he remained six years, and then removed to London, to succeed Mr. John Allen, (who came to Newcastle,) at Petticoat-lane. He was set apart, 1769. The church removed to Glass-house-yard, Aldersgate-street, November 2, 1772. In 1774, they built a new place in Crown-alley, Moorfields; continued there till 1783; removed to Hope-street, Spital-fields, and Mr. Hall continued to preach there till Ms death, August 17, 1786, aged 61 years. He was buried in Bunhill-fields.

      In the end of the year 1752, Mr. Fernie. had been requested to supply the church at Tuthill-stairs, Newcastle.

He did so, along with Mr. Rutherford, as already mentioned, and also with Mr. Peden, till the church there was supplied by a minister named Mr. Bowser, said to be a native of Sunderland. At this latter place there appears to have been a Baptist church at this time, and Mr. Peden had become its minister.

      1753. - The annual association was held this year at Hawksheadhill. Great anxiety is expressed, that the messengers should state clearly to the churches, the advices tendered to them by the association, and if they neglected they should be reproved. The heads of families are recommended to educate their children in the knowledge of the Bible, and the Baptist Catechism.

      1754. - The annual meeting was held this year at Hamsterley. The letter from the church in this village, both for this year and the previous one, is in the hand writing of Mr. Garner; but these are the last; and no entry is found in the church-book for the ensuing sixteen or seventeen years. It is probable, from these circumstances, that the health of Mr. Garner was giving way; he had, however, a few assistants. Mr. Cuthbert Crawford had been called to the ministry, in 1750. It is probable, that his cousin Mr. Joshua Garner, who was for some years his successor, also assisted him for some time before he died. Mr. Michael Wharton probably the son of the former individual of that name, had been baptized by Mr. Garner, and, it may be, assisted him. He seems, however, to have been called, about this time to Oulton, to aid Mr. Palmer, where he continued to his death, which took place about the year 1790. Mr. Oulton left Bridlington this year, and was succeeded by Mr. Thomas Wilbraham.

      1755-1758. - Between these years few particulars respecting the churches are known; but the latter of them is distinguished by the death of Mr. Isaac

Garner.* This event took place on the 19th September, in his forty-first year. Owing to his secular and ministerial employments, his constitution, - as his daughter, Mrs. Angus, informed the writer, - soon broke up. For some time before his death, he became the victim of a dropsical complaint, and gradually sunk beneath it.

      As a pastor, Mr. Garner was both disinterested and laborious; as he was unwearied, while his health remained, in going to Rowley and Hindley, every fortnight, which, necessarily, to a person of feeble frame, involved great fatigue; and the expenses of his horse, in travelling, his daughter affirmed, were about the whole of the amount the church awarded him for his labours.

      As a preacher, Mr. Garner was very acceptable. The remains of his letters and sermons, discover him
* Mr. Garner married soon after he came to Hamsterley, Ann, daughter of Joseph Jopling, of Satley, whose father Joseph was the eldest son of Joseph and Deborah Jopling, referred to in page 84. Mrs. Garner's mother was Elizabeth, sister of Sarah Rippon, mother of Mr. Wm. Angus, of the Juniper-Dye-House. She had four brothers: Thomas, of Cotherstone, long a deacon of the church at Hamsterley; John, of the same place; Silas, of London ; and Isaac, of Gateshead. She had two sisters that died young; and Elizabeth, wife of the Rev. David Kinghorn, of Bishop Burton, father of the distinguished Rev. Joseph Kinghorn, of Norwich. Mrs. Garner had six children, two sons and four daughters. She bore her youngest son and daughter twins, after the death of their father, Mr. Garner. Her eldest son married a Miss Fletcher, of Broughton; and settled in Dublin. Her eldest daughter married Thomas Morgan, of Hamsterley, whose son Thomas settled as a Baptist minister in Dublin. Her second daughter married, 1st. Mr. Little, of Cotherstone, by whom she had one daughter, Mrs. Atkinson, Newcastle; and 2nd, the Rev. Jacob Hutton, of Broughton. Her third daughter, Dorothy, was married to Henry Angus, of the Low-Dye-House, grandson of Titus, third son of Henry Angus, of Raw-house. Her youngest daughter died unmarried, and her youngest son

to have been not only a very pious man, but one of good mental capacity, some reading, and considerable scriptural information. An aged female living at the village of Cotherstone, where Mr. Garner had relatives, whoin he often visited, and usually preached when he did so, told the writer, that she had often, in her younger days, heard Mr. Garner, and that he was a good preacher and a holy man. But the chief proof of the value of his preaching was, the success with which it was crowned; for in the course of the sixteen or seventeen years that he was minister and pastor of the people in Hamsterley, &c., seventy-four persons were added to their number. It is true that he might not personally, by his preaching, have been the instrument of converting the whole. As some of them bear the name of certain persons; whose names are attached to the trust-deed of the chapel at Marton, in Yorkshire, it is probable that these were the same persons recorded in the church-book at Hamsterley. It is highly likely, from this that Mr. Fernie was the means of adding these, and, probably, many others; doubtless also, the other fellow-labourers of Mr. Garner had their share in this amount of usefulness, but still, there can be little doubt that he himself had a considerable part, under the Great Head of the church, in effecting these additions. As in the case of other communities, it must be acknowledged that some of those who were added, were afterwards excommunicated; but still, with regard to the majority, in the exercise of a charitable decision, there is reason to hope, that they were truly converted to God.
Isaac was a printer, and was the author of some poetical pieces, of considerable merit. A short notice of him is given by Mackenzie, in his History of Durham. Mrs. Garner married a second time, and died in 1806. She vras deposited in the grave of her first husband.
      1759-1760. - After Mr. Garner's death, the labourers in the church already mentioned, had the care of it, along with the deacons, and public preaching chiefly devolved on them. These were Mr. Joshua Garner and Mr. Cuthbert Crawford. Mr. J. Garner never was ordained over the church, which was, therefore, from 1758 to 1774, destitute of a regular pastorate. Mr. Jonathan Angus still officiated as deacon, but as he was now far advanced in years, his son, Mr. George Angus, was called to his assistance. His son-in-law also, Mr. John Hall, of Hamsterley, along with a colleague of the same name, at this time, sustained the office of deacon, with great credit to themselves and benefit to the church. The supralapsarian notions still so far prevailed, that several withdrew, and united with Messrs. Fernie and Blacket; the latter of whom preached in a house of his own, at Hamsterley, and also visited either occasionally, or periodically, the village of Westpits, &c.

      In the year 1761, after a probation of full six years, Mr. Wilbraham was ordained at Bridlington. He was quite blind, but a very acceptable preacher.

      1762. - Previously to 1762, the church at Newcastle had been supplied by Messrs. Fernie, Peden, and Bowser. The latter had, for some time, been the settled minister of that church; but about this period he had left, and they were again in a state of destitution. Their only resource was their old friend, Mr. Fernie, and the church at the Juniper-Dye-House. They accordingly sent to them the following letter, imploring their assistance:--

      "NEWCASTLE, JULY 12, 1762. " To the Church of Jesus Christ, at Hexham, &c., under the pastoral care of Mr. David Fernie.

      "We, your brethren, of the same faith and order, at Newcastle, send Christian salutations. We acknowledge your tender

faithful care, and concern for us, since we became a people here, and that you have been like a mother and nurse to us, who are yet but in oar infancy, and no wonder we think and act like children. Mr. Bowser is gone from us, and we are again destitute. We thank you for this visit of your pastor; and we unanimously desire, and request, you will Send him to visit us; and we have made the like application to the church at Sunderland, which, if granted, will supply us once a fortnight, till we see what the Lord will do for us. And we desire your prayers to the Lord of the harvest, for a labourer to this little vineyard; and though we are young, weak, few, poor, and much dispersed, who can tell what the Lord may do for his own name's sake. We think most of us are, through grace, sincere and hearty for the cause, and the Lord is among us. Your favourable compliance will much oblige us, and we shall make conscience of bearing his charges; for the workman is worthy of his meat.
"This, by order of the church, is signed by your dear brethren in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ,
     1763-1765. - During these years we have few documents to enable us to ascertain the state of our northern churches. In the course of the ministry of Mr. Joshua Garner, at Hamsterley, we have no entries in the church record ; and in that of Newcastle, none till 1765
* The above letter throws considerable light on the history of the church at Tuthill-stairs. They represent themselves, 1st. As being few, weak, and poor. 2nd. As being dispersed; intimating, probably, that few as they were, they were much scattered over the neighbouring towns and villages of North and South Shields, &c. 3rd. As being young, and in their infancy; also as having had the church at Hexham to have cared for them as a mother and a nurse. This appears to imply, that previously to Mr. Ferule's being pastor of the church at the Dye-House, the Newcastle people had been in such a reduced state, that they had been formed as a church anew, under the direction of Mr. Ferine; and perhaps this had taken place soon after Mr. Kendall had written his letter, in 1749. Be this, however, as it may, the name of George West, attached to the above letter, seems to guarantee the existence of some of the members of the church, during the forty-two years that intervened, between the purchase of the property in 1720 and 1762. If Mr. G. West was thirty-eight in 1720, he would only be seventy-two now in 1762. The above letter has been preserved in the family of Mr. William Angus, the deacon of the church at Juniper-Dye-House.
When we are informed that Mr. Fernie still ministered to the people there, once a month, in his usual itinerating journies in Northumberland, Durham, and Yorkshire. In this year he baptized at Tuthill-stairs, two individuals who were afterwards distinguished members in that church, viz., Mr. Caleb Alder, a gentleman of great respectability, and Mr. Philip Nairn.

      It was also in 1765, that Mr. Sedgefield, formerly of Liverpool, but who from 1725, had been minister of the church at Tottlebank, a period of forty years, died. He was succeeded by Mr. Joshua Kettleby, who was ordained 18th September, 1765, and continued pastor of the church till 1770, when he removed.

      In the month of July, this year, 1765, Mr. Robert Carmichael, minister of a small Independent church, in Edinburgh, invited Dr. Gill, of London, to come to Edinburgh to baptize him, with five others, as they had changed their sentiments on the subject of baptism. As this was not convenient for the Doctor, he requested Mr. C. to apply to Mr. Fernie, in the North of England, and induce him to administer the ordinance to himself and friends. This suggestion wag couched in the following terms: --

                "July 16, 1765.
      There is one Mr. David Fernie, a Scotchman by birth, in the northern part of England. He is a man of great evangelical light, and good knowledge of the constitution and order of churches. He frequently preaches at Newcastle and Sunderland; but his ministry lies chiefly in the bishoprick of Durham. I direct my letters always to him - for I have had a correspondence with him for many years, - in this manner: - To Mr. David Fernie, at the Chairhead, Newgate, Bishop Auckland, in the County of Durham. If Mr. Carmichael could take a journey into these parts, which is the nearest I think I can direct to, he might be baptized by him, and then, as I before observed, upon his return, he might baptize the rest of the friends.
          JOHN GILL."

      1766. - We have not the means at present, of ascertaining the reason why Mr. Carmichael was not baptized by Mr. Fernie; but, as stated in the note below, he was baptized in October, this year, in London, by Dr. Gill.* An affectionate intimacy, we are certain, commenced at this time between Mr. Carmichael and the friends at Edinburgh, and Mr. Fernie and the friends in the North of England. In the midsummer of 1766, Mr. Fernie, with his beloved and constant friend, Mr. William Angus, of the Juniper-Dye-House, went to Edinburgh, and had an affectionate and Christian interview
* The notice which has been already taken of the Baptists, in Scotland, in the days of the Commonwealth, leads us to feel an interest in the resuscitation of Baptist principles, in that country, at this time. Among the leaders in this movement, were the above Mr. Carmichael, who had been orginally an Antiburgher minister, at Cupar, in Angusshire, where he was much esteemed. By perusing the works of the celebrated John Glass, he left his former connexion, and became pastor of a Glassite church, in Glasgow, in 1762. In 1763, he had some conversation with his friend, Mr. Archibald Maclean, Printer, Glasgow, on the subject of Infant Baptism. They agreed, that they could see no authority for it in the Scriptures; but resolved, not to be hasty in their decision. Mr. Carmichael was this year called to be an elder of an Independent church, in Edinburgh. In 1764 he wrote to Mr. Maclean, requesting his thoughts on Baptism. Mr. M. complied; and stated his conviction that Infant Baptism had no authority from the word of God. Mr. C. became also convinced of the same truth, during the following year, with five others. As there were no Baptists in Scotland, Dr. Gill, of London, was written to, as stated in the text. Mr. C. went to London, in the end of Sept. 1765, preached for Dr. Gill, and was baptized by him, at the Barbican, Oct. 9. Returning to Edinburgh, he baptized his five friends, with other two in November following, and they were formed into a church. Mr. Maclean, being at Glasgow, was baptized some weeks afterwards; and in the spring of the following year, wrote an answer to Mr. Glass's Dissertation on Infant Baptism, a masterly performance, the reading of which had the effect of convincing the writer, in early life, of the truth of Baptist principles
with the brethren there. On their return they brought with them the following letter:
"The Church of Jesus Christ, which is in Edinburgh, professing and holding the doctrine of Free, Sovereign Grace, in the Salvation of Sinners, &c., To the Churches of Jesus Christ of the same faith and order at Marion, Hexham, and Newcastle, under the pastoral care of our dearly beloved brother Mr. David Fernie, Grace to you, and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.
      "We cannot but return you our most sincere and hearty thanks, for your great love, sympathy, and care, you have shewed to us: first, in seeking after acquaintance with us, and in expressing your hearty affection towards us, in your letters to Mr. Harlaw, and afterwards to ourselves, in your episties to us; and now, at this time, have shewed the greatest evidence of your real regard to us for the truth's sake, which you judged to be in us, in sending messengers to us, to comfort us in our infant state; and still more in that one of them is your pastor, whom we highly
In 1767, - Mr. Maclean removed to Edinburgh; and became Mr. Carmichael's colleague in 1768. The church then considerably increased. In 1769, Mr. C. removed to Dundee, to take the eldership of a newly formed church there. In that year, churches were formed at Glasgow and Montrose. Mr. Carmichael died in 1774. In the years 1775, 1776, and 1777, a great degree of controversy unhappily occupied the newly formed churches; but still they grew. In 1777, a number of influential persons joined them: among others, Mr. Henry David Inglis, advocate, grandson to Colonel Gardiner, who fell at Preston Pans; and Mr. John Campbell; Mr. William Dickie, &c. In 1778, Mr. Moncreiff, brother to Sir Henry Moncreiff, became elder of the church at Glasgow. In the same year, Mr. William Braidwood, long afterwards, an elder along with Mr. Maclean, and Mr. H. D. Inglis, joined the church and was ordained 1779. Some persons from Wooler, in Northumberland, were baptized that year. In 1780, Mr. George Greive, Presbyterian minister there, also was baptized. We shall allude to the progress of this connexion in our succeeding pages.
regard, and to whom we are highly obliged. And we cannot but express our joy, to find both in conversation with your messengers, and hearing your minister preach, that there is such a unity of spirit and sentiment in the doctrines and ordinances of the gospel; and we think ourselves very happy in having acquaintance and Christian correspondence with you, as a sister church, or churches. O how wonderfully hath the Lord manifested his goodness to us, in delivering us from Anti-christian darkness; and gathered us into a church state, publicly to confess him before men, and to follow him without the camp, bearing his reproach; and without being ashamed to bear testimony to the doctrines of the gospel, and ordinances thereof, that have been corrupted and trodden under foot of men; and all in a way that we looked not for! We may truly say, that we have experienced the fulfilment of that promise, 'I will bring the blind by a way that they know not,' &c. We are but a very small handful, poor and despised in the world, very unfit and unlikely for such a work, as to raise his truths and ordinances from so much rubbish as they have been, buried under; but the Lord himself hath begun it, and he needeth not great instruments for his work. 'Not by might, nor by power; but by my Spirit, saith the Lord.' To Him be all the glory.

      "We shall be always glad to hear from you, and to maintain Christian and kindly correspondence with you, and when it shall be in our power, we shall cheerfully return your visit; meantime, we acknowledge your great kindness in giving us this visit, which hath been very refreshing, strengthening, and comforting unto us. And we pray the Lord may make you a fruitful vine, by the sides of his house; and thy children like olive plants, round about his table; and that he may do better to you than at your beginnings.

      "Wishing you a joyful meeting with Mr. Feniie and Mr. Angus, your messengers, and kindly saluting you all, we are severally your very affectionate brethren in our dear Lord Jesus.

           Signed in the name and in the presence of the Church, at Edinburgh, 28th July, 1766, by
           Robert Carmichael, Robert Walker, Joseph Strachan, Joseph Wainwright, and J. Harlaw."

      On the return of Messrs. Fernie and Angus, the church at Newcastle sent the following reply to the

church at Edinburgh. It is addressed to one of tbe, brethren, perhaps, Mr. Robert Walker.

           " Newcastle, 5th August, 1760.


           "Through the good hand of our God upon us, we got safely home, and, had a comfortable meeting with our brethren, at Hexham, on the First Day of the Week, when, after the Lord's Supper, your church letter was read, which, with our account of your primitive simplicity, gospel order, and stedfastness in the faith, brotherly kindness to us, and our great satisfaction and comfort among you, caused great pleasure and joy to them; and also, to the brethren here, whither I came yesterday, and delivered your salutations to them, at a meeting we had in the evening. All of them rejoiced at the consolation, and salute you heartily in the Lord, and wish your 'city may flourish like the grass of the earth.'

      "When we reflect on that love to Jesus, and to his truth and kingdom, that purity and zeal, that humility, openness of heart, and brotherly love to us, that appeared in you and your worthy spouse, and also in our dear Mr. Carmichael and all the church, we cannot but love you, and thank and praise the Lord on your behalf. It is the Lord's doings, and wondrous and very pleasant in our eyes

      "Mr. Alder's love, and mine, to Mr. Maclean. - Mr. Powler, that minister I spoke of, has been here. He rejoices at the good tidings from Edinr., and gives kind respects to you all, and joins in good wishes for you. Accept this short epistle, as I have little time. If there is any thing material among you, inform us of it soon. Direct either to Mr. West, as before, or to Mr. Caleb Alder, on the Side, Newcastle. God is able to make all grace to abound to you. His blessing be on you, your dear spouse, and your dear little children; and his beauty on the work of your hands. He is not unrighteous to forget your work and labour of love. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all.

           "I am, dear Sir, your sincere and affectionate brother in the dear Lord Jesus,
               DAVID FERNIE."

      It is a pleasing singularity, that an intercourse should take place between the revived churches at

Hexham, &c., and Edinburgh, at the present time, such as had taken place between them, one hundred and thirteen years before, in 1653. Messrs. Hickhorngill and Stackhouse were the messengers of the church at Hexham, at that time; and Messrs. Fernie and Angus were the messengers now. When, at the former time, the messengers returned from Scotland to the North of England, they brought an affectionate letter with them, and told the brethren how kindly they had been received; and the church at Hexham sent an affectionate and grateful reply. We find the churches, on the present occasion, acting in a similar manner. In viewing both cases, we are forced to exclaim, "Behold how good and how pleasant a thing it is for brethren to dwell together in unity." Christianity real, living Christianity, is ever the same, at all times, and in all places.

      1767. - In the year 1767, a change took place at Bridlington, Yorkshire. Mr. Wilbraham, on account of the unbecoming cavilling of some of the members of this church, felt himself induced to withdraw. Mr. Gawkrodger, of Shipley, who had most successfully reared the cause in that place, was invited to Bridlington. He accepted the call, and became as useful there as he had been formerly at Shipley 1768. - It was somewhere about this time, that Mr. Joshua Garner, at Hamsterley, as traditionally related, by the aged people of that period, received a challenge from a gentleman of the neighbourhood, Mr. Surtees, a relative of the historian of Durham. The challenge was, that he would come and hear him, if he would preach from Judges i. 19, "And the Lord was with Judah, and he drave out the inhabitants of the mountains, but could not drive out those of the vallies, because they had chariots of iron." Mr. Garner accepted the challenge, and preached on the subject, much to the

      1768. It was somewhere about this time, that Mr. Joshua Garner, at Hamsterley, as traditionally related, by the aged people of that period, received a challenge from a gentleman of the neighbourhood, Mr. Surtees, a relative of the historian of Durham. The challenge was, that he would come and hear him, if he would preach from Judges i. 19, "And the Lord was with Judah, and he drave out the inhabitants of the mountains, but could not drive out those of the vallies, because they had chariots of iron." Mr. Garner accepted the challenge, and preached on the subject, much to the

satisfaction of Mr. Surtees, who, exclaimed, that he was an uncouth, but a clever fellow. We are not told what interpretation Mr. Garner gave the passage; but it is probable, that he resolved the want of success, on the part of the tribe of Judah ia the valley into their unbelief, they, having feelings akin to the ten spies, when they returned and told the Israelites, "that the cities were walled," &c. On this account, Jehovah was displeased with them, and left them to the unbelief and cowardice of their own minds, and the feebleness of their own arms.

      Owing to some disagreement with several of the members of Hamsterley, who withdrew from his teaching, and his growing infirmities, Mr. Garner was induced, by his friends and relatives, to retire from that village, and give way to a more acceptable ministry and settled pastorate. He acted on this advice, and retired to the house of his son-in-law, Mr. John Smith, of Durham, and died there, at an advanced age.

      1769. - From 1762 to 1769 the cause at Tuthill-stairs had, as far as we know, to depend for supplies on Mr. Fernie and the minister of Sunderland. Who the minister of that place then was, we are not informed. Mr. Peden having died young, it is not at all unlikely, that Mr. Fernie supplied at Sunderland as well as Newcastle. A chapel had either been purchased, or built for the accommodation of the brethren of this town; and Mr. Fernie went to London with the case, aud preached at many towns, on his return, taking collections wherever he could obtain them. When he arrived at Rochdale, he wrote to Mr. Angus, at the Juniper-Dye-House, aud refers, in his letter, very interestingly to the many places that he visited. The following is an abridgement of it:--


                "Rochdale, Oct. 17, 1769.

          "Whom, with all the flock, I long to see again, after a long absence, Grace, and peace, and my love, be with you all evermore.

      I left London, Sepr. 16, and came to Watford, 17 miles, and preached there on the 17th. Mr. Medley (afterwards of Liverpool) is sound and lively. They made a collection for the case, and were kind to me. From that I went to St. Albans; thence to Luton; then to Bedford, where there is a numerous church of Independents, and but two or three Baptists. It was John Bunyan's; and I was in his pulpit. Mr. Symonds, their minister, is a sound man, and friendly, and so were the people. Then I came to Colton. The minister there is a lively, sound, kind, and useful man church flourishing. From that, to Olney, Bucks, and preached Lord's Day, 24th, then to Northampton; and Mr. Ryland, [afterwards Dr. R.,] and a young minister and I set out for Kettering, to a minister's meeting, and then preached in the evening, and next morning, and also in the evening; then to Tosten, preached Lord's Day, lst. Octr.; on Monday, at Bosworth; at Mousley, on Tuesday; and at Arnsby, on Wednesday. Here I was detained, a week longer than I intended, by Mr. Hall [his old friend.] Then to Leicester, and preached on Friday. Next at Sheepshead, and preached on the eighteenth. Then to Hallingham, and preached on Wednesday. Then 16 miles to Derby, and then took the stage and came to Manchester, 56 miles, where I preached Lord's Day, and stayed on Monday, and collected for the case; and so I came here, this day, 12 miles. Mr. Cleg is a good preacher, a man of great parts, and has a great silk trade. He is very kind. I design being at Mr. King's, next Lord's Day, else I cannot see him this winter. His letter and recommendation did me much good at London. I have had a letter from him, desiring me to come that way, and he says, many converts are added to them. Thence I shall go to Marton, the 29th; and, if the Lord will, I shall be with you, next Lord's Day, Novr. 5th. I pray you give the members notice, and let us be at the Lord's supper again, with joy, and in peace and comfort. Then, I think of being at Newcastle, on the 12th, which I would have you to intimate: and then, I shall go to Sunderland, and discharge my trust, which I hope to do faithfully, to their wish. Thus I devise my way, with submission to the will of God, who

will direct my steps according to his will. My love to Mrs. Angus and your family; to father and mother; also to Silas, Henry and Margaret, and to all my dear brethren and sisters in the church.

      "My love to brother David, Mr. Alder, Philip, and all the friends at Newcastle."

      Mr. Fernie does not refer to Mr. Allen, of Petticoatlane, London, already referred to, as the predecessor of Mr. C. Hall there; but the church at Newcastle had given him a call to be their pastor, which he accepted, and came to Newcastle in the end of the same year, 1769. He continued till February, 1771; and then went to America, where he died. During his residence at Newcastle, he baptized several; two of whom lived to tell the tale for many a day afterward. These were, Mr. John Grice, who removed to London, and died in 1830: the other was the Rev. Charles Whitneld, of Hamsterley, whose distinguished career, as the leading minister among the Baptists of the North of England, we are now about to review in the period of our history that opens upon us.*
* We have little from Mr. Fernie's letter relating to the churches of Lancashire, &c. Oakenshaw was reckoned a branch church of Bacup, in 1737. In 1760, Mr. Bamford was settled over them as pastor, and in 1765 the place of meeting was transferred to Accrington. The church of Bingley, in Yorkshire, was formed in 1762, through the agency of Mr. Skirrow and his son-in-law, Mr. [late Dr.] Fawcett, then a member of the church at Bradford. In 1764, the chapel was built, and Mr. Butterworth settled. He was succeeded in 1768, by Mr. Dracup, who removed soon after to Rochdale. In 1767, Colne, in Lancashire, had its origin from some of the members of Barnoldswick: Mr. Studdard was their first pastor. Scarborough had its commencement in 1767, likewise. Mr. Hague was its first pastor, and long held the office with much honour. History affirms that Sir J. Lawson, a Baptist, lived here, and died in 1665. He was the friend of General Harrison.


[From David Douglas, History of the Baptist Churches in the North of England, from 1748 - 1769, London, 1846, pp. 164-198. Scanned and formatted by Jim Duvall.]

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